عنوان مقاله [English]
Regarding the bottom outlet gates, the optimal hydraulic design to ensure non-occurrence of destructive vibrations is very important. Forces inserted into the gates due to the flow with high hydrostatic pressure under the gates may cause creation of damage on the lower edge of gates. Compressive hydrostatic force along with the gate weight and friction forces determine the required powers for down-pull (or uplift) of the gates which is also affected by the geometric shape and flow passing under the gates. The existence of high pressure flow in the upstream of bottom outlet gates, as well as the small quantities of gate opening compared to the head water, may cause using common theoretical methods result in significant errors in the determination of different involved parameters. Therefore there is a need for accurate laboratory studies. In this paper, the results of the study on the physical model of bottom channel and service and emergency gates of Narmasheer Dam is presented. Also the results of measurements of exerted forces gate and vibrations into the gates are provided. The necessary tests have been made, so that using the measured pressure distribution on the gates, vertical forces and maximum damage in both normal head tank and various gate openings, were determined respectively. The exerted forces were calculated based on the use of pressure distribution obtained by piezometers installed above and under the gates. In this study, the maximum horizontal force appears on the 2 percent gate opening and is equivalent to 2410 (KN). The maximum horizontal force into the emergency gate has also occurred in the initial gate opening situation with a value of 2507 (KN). The experimental results also indicated that the maximum operation frequency of vibration due to the high pressure flow in the bottom outlet channel is 80 per second. The tests showed that by increasing the diameter of gate lift arm, the frequency of vibration can be controlled.