نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته دکتری رشته علوم خاک، گرایش فیزیک و حفاظت خاک دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز و عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه جامع علمی کاربردی .

2 دانشیار گروه خاکشناسی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شهیدچمران اهواز

3 استادگروه خاکشناسی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

4 دانشیار سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، پژوهشکده حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری

چکیده

هدررفت عناصر غذایی و کاهش حاصل­خیزی خاک از مهم­ترین اثرات تخریب خاک است. بنابراین نیاز است که عوامل مؤثر بر آن در حوضه­های مختلف مورد بررسی قرار گیرد. حوضه آبخیز کاکاشرف در استان لرستان از جمله حوضه­هایی است که در معرض تخریب قرار دارد. لذا در این حوضه، تأثیر نوع کاربری اراضی (مرتع، جنگل و زراعت) و طبقات شیب (10، 20 و 30 درصد) بر هدررفت فسفر و پتاسیم در رواناب تولید شده ، بررسی شد. در این تحقیق با استفاده از دستگاه شبیه­ساز باران، از شش زیر حوضه، تعداد 93 واقعه باران با شدت 36 میلی­متر در ساعت و با تداوم 30 دقیقه ایجاد و میزان تلفات عناصر فسفر و پتاسیم ناشی از هر بارش در سه کاربری و سه سطح شیب اندازه­گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد که میانگین هدررفت فسفر در رواناب در سه کاربری جنگل، مرتع و زراعت به­ترتیب 22/0، 26/0 و 21/0 میلی­گرم بر کیلوگرم خاک و در سه شیب 10، 20 و 30 درصد 22/0، 21/0 و 25/0 میلی­گرم برکیلوگرم بود. همچنین میانگین هدررفت پتاسیم در کاربری جنگل، مرتع و زراعت به­ترتیب 38/18، 32/22 و 71/18 میلی­گرم برکیلوگرم و در سه شیب 10، 20 و 30 درصد به­ترتیب 74/20، 71/18 و 96/19 میلی­گرم بر کیلوگرم برآورد گردید. تجزیه واریانس اثر کاربری بر هدررفت فسفر و پتاسیم نشان داد که هدررفت فسفر در رواناب در شیب­های 10، 20 و 30 درصد و هدررفت پتاسیم در رواناب در شیب 30 درصد معنی­دار نبود. ولی اثر کاربری بر مقدار هدررفت پتاسیم در شیب 10درصد در سطح پنج درصد و در شیب 20 درصد در سطح یک درصد معنی­دار بود. همچنین اثر شیب بر هدررفت فسفر در کاربری جنگل در سطح یک درصد و زراعت در سطح پنج درصد معنی­دار ولی در کاربری مرتع معنی­دار نشد.  اثر شیب بر هدررفت پتاسیم در کاربری­های مرتع و جنگل معنی­دار نبود و تنها در کاربری زراعت معنی­دار شد. با افزایش شیب غلظت هدرفت فسفر روند افزایشی و غلظت هدررفت پتاسیم روند کاهشی نشان داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Land use Type and Slope Degree on Phosphorous and Potassium Losses in Runoff Using Rainfall Simulators (Case study: Kakasharaf Watershed Basin, Lorestan)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Kianoush Behrahi 1
  • Gholam Abbas sayyad 2
  • Ahmad Landi 3
  • Hamid reza peyrowan 4

1 Ph.D Student, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. Ahvaz, Iran.

3 Professor, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. Ahvaz, Iran.hsjhn

4 Conservation and Watershed Management Institute, Iran Associate professor of Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Soil

چکیده [English]

Water erosion causes serious damage to all natural ecosystems, including the soil and nutrients loss (Collman et al., 2010). Nutrients loss and soil fertility reduction are the most important effects of soil erosion, which increase the fertility of soils in downward of the basin and cause contamination of surface and underground water (Telles et al., 2013). Soil loss is a serious problem in developing countries and has been a source of concern (Wolancho, 2012). Phosphorus and potassium are important elements in agricultural products. Each of the mentioned elements has especial behavior in transferring by runoff. Potassium is very mobile in comparison with phosphorus, so it is easily displaced by water from the runoff process. Despite numerous studies done in the world regarding the loss of elements in runoff and sediment, there is no accurate information in this regard in Iran. In Lorestan Province, due to the lack of attention to land suitability in land uses, basins are severely subject to erosion and soil degradation. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the effects of slope and type of land use on the loss of potassium and phosphorus in runoff in Kakasharaf Basin in Lorestan province.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Soil loss
  • phosphorus
  • Potassium
  • Forest
  • Pasture
  • Agriculture

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