تحلیل و ارزیابی راهبردهای حفاظتی تالاب هورالعظیم با استفاده از ماتریس های SWOT و QSPM

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه محیط زیست، پردیس علوم و تحقیقات خوزستان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

2 استادیار گروه محیط زیست دانشگاه صنعتی خاتم الانبیاء بهبهان، بهبهان، ایران

3 استادیار گروه محیط زیست، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

      زیست­بوم­های تالابی، کالاها و خدمات زیست­محیطی متعددی را فراهم می­کنند. امروزه این­گونه سیستم­ها به­دلیل فشار فوق­العاده­ای به­دلیل فشارهای انسانی، افزایش شهرنشینی، صنعتی شدن و رشد بی­رویه کشاورزی و گردشگری نابخردانه و بهره­برداری بیش از حد از منابع طبیعی، با کاهش عملکرد هیدرولوژیکی، اقتصادی و زیست­محیطی مواجه شده­اند. تالاب هورالعظیم به­عنوان یکی از پناهگاه­های حیات وحش و زیست­بوم­های آبی ایران، بدلیل فشارهای وارده بر آن در چند دهه اخیر، با صدمات زیادی مواجه شده است. این تالاب در مرز مشترک ایران و عراق، در جنوب­غربی ایران و در شهرستان دشت­آزادگان از استان خوزستان، واقع شده است. به­منظور حفاظت از تالاب هورالعظیم، مدیریت بهینه منابع و سیاست­های مناسب محیط­زیستی ضرورت دارد. پژوهش حاضر با هدف تدوین برنامه راهبردی حفاظتی در تالاب هورالعظیم در سال 1394 انجام شده است. برای این منظور، در نخستین گام، به شناسایی عوامل داخلی و عوامل خارجی پرداخته شد. سپس عوامل داخلی و خارجی در قالب جداول ارزیابی عوامل داخلی (IFE) و ارزیابی عوامل خارجی (EFE) نمره‌دهی و وزن‌دهی شدند. برای وزن‌دهی عوامل داخلی و خارجی، از فرایند (AHP) و نرم‌افزار Expert choice استفاده گردید. ماتریس عوامل داخلی با امتیاز 58/1، بیانگر این بود که تالاب هورالعظیم دارای نقاط ضعف بیشتری نسبت به قوت­های موجود و عوامل خارجی با امتیاز 82/1، بیانگر وجود تهدیدهای بیشتری نسبت به فرصت­ها بود. نتایج نشان داد در ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ مورد ﺑﺮﺭﺳﯽ، به منظور تدوین راهبردی حفاظتی، بر اساس ماتریس SWOT، ﺩﺭ ﺷﺮﺍﯾﻂ تدافعی (ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﮋﯼ WT)، و براساس تحلیل QSPM، راهبرد تهیه بانک اطلاعات از میزان و نوع آلاینده‌ها (WT2)، دارای بالاترین اولویت به­دست آمد. بدون تردید شناخت درست و دقیق عوامل تهدیدکننده تالاب­ها، می­تواند زمینه را برای جلوگیری و مقابله اصولی­تر با این عوامل و نیز تهیه و اجرای دقیق طرح­های حفاظتی و مدیریتی زیست­محیطی فراهم آورد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis and Evaluation of Hour-Al-Azim Wetland Conservation Strategies Using SWOT and QSPM Matrix

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahshid Gazabizadeh 1
  • Gholam Reza Sabzghabaei 2
  • Soolmaz Dashti 3
1 Department of Environment, Khuzestan Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Environment, Behbahan Khatam Alanbia University of Technology, Behbahan, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor,Department of Environment, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

     Wetlands are the intermediate lands between drought and aquatic ecosystems and are the most fertile and most productive ecosystems on earth (Germandy et al., 2008). Management of wetlands for conservation includes the conservation of wetlands from direct human pressures and the maintenance of natural processes in the vicinity of wetland. Monitoring the changes in wetlands and their surrounding lands can be useful for managing these valuable ecosystems (Sabzghabaei et al., 2015). In order to better protect the sustainable development, the necessity of differentiation and recognition of the characteristics of wetlands makes it possible to determine the resources, source of origin, location and factors of their destruction, so that they can be managed with a proper understanding of them. (Lambin and Gist, 2006). If society wants sustainable development in the first stage, we must acquire a complete knowledge of our environment, and in the second stage we must work with strategic planning to maintain it (Jafari, 2015). Strategic planning models are unlimited, but almost all of them are inspired by the SWOT analytical model (Chang and Huang, 2006). From the perspective of this model, an effective strategy will maximize strengths and opportunities and minimize the weaknesses and threats (Ganjali et al., 2014). Hour_ Al_ Azim wetland is located in the common border region of Iran and Iraq in the southwest of Iran and in the county of Dashte Azadegan of Khuzestan province (Behroozirad, 2008). Over the past decade, due to the intensification of human activities, in particular the development of the Azadegan oilfield and the pressures of human societies on the studied wetland, there have been profound changes in the region. This research was conducted with the aim of developing appropriate conservation strategies for Hour_ Al_ Azim wetland.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • strategy
  • Conservation
  • Hour-Al-Azim Wetland
  • SWOT
  • QSPM

1-    Behroozirad, B., 2008. Wetlands of Iran. National Geographical Organization Publication, Iran, First Edition, P 798. (In Persian).

 

2-    Buytaert, W., 2006, Human Impact on the Hydrology of Andean Paramos, Earth-Science Reviews, Valume79, Issues 1-2, Pages 53-72.

 

3-    Chang, H. and Huang, W., 2006. Application of a quantification swot analytical method, Mathematical and computer modeling, 43, pp. 158-169.

 

4-    De Lange, H.J., Sala, S., Vighi, M., Faber, J.H., 2010, Ecological vulnerability in risk assessment: A review and perspectives, Science of the Total Environment, 408, pp. 3871–3879.

 

5-    Diamantopoulou, P. and Voudouris. K., 2008. Optimization of water resources management using SWOT analysis: the case of Zakynthos Island, Ionian Sea, Greece. Environmental Geology, 54, pp. 197-211.

 

6-    Engelstadler, S., 2001. Dust storm frequencies and their relationships to land surface conditions. Freidrich- Schiller University Press. Pp 56-57.

 

7-    Esfandeh S., Daneh Kar, A., 2015. Comparative Comparison study of wetlands in Hormozgan province by combining MedWet and IBA methods, second national conference on management and engineering of wetlands. 25th and 26th of June. (In Persian).

 

8-    Fotouhi, S., Mesbah, H., Sadri, S., 2014. Identification and Analysis of the Maturity Risk of Drying of Maharloo Wetland and its Consequences on the Environment, Wetland Ecobiology, 6(20), pp. 43 -54. (In Persian).

 

9-    Ganjalia, S., Ghassemib, H. and Hosseini Ghomi, M., 2014. Environmental and Strategic Assessment of the Integrated Management Plan for Lake Urmia Basin. Wetland Ecobiology, 6 (4), pp. 41-48. (In Persian).

 

10- Ganjali, S., Shayeste, K.and Ghasemi, A., 2014. Environmental and Strategic Assessment of Ecotourism Potential in Anzali International Wetland Using SWOT Analyses. Caspian Journal Environmet Science, 12, pp. 155-164.

 

11- Ghermandi, A., van den Bergh, J.C.J.M., Brander, L.M., Nunes, P.A.L.D., 2008, The Economic Value of Wetland Conservation andCreation: A Meta-Analysis. [Working Paper 79]. Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Milan, Italy.

 

12- Ghorbanian, J., Kardavani, P., 2014. Analysis of Dust tissue of Ahvaz city by the X-ray method and the correlation of the escalation of these storms with the destruction of the Hour_Al_Azim Wetland. Wetland Ecobiology, 6(20), pp. 93- 102. (In Persian).

 

13- Goudie, A. and Middelton, N.J., 2001. Saharan dust storms: Nature and Consequences. Earth Science Reviews, 56, pp.179-204.

 

14- Goudie, A. and Middelton, N.J., 2006. Desert Dust in the Global Systems. Berlin, Heidelburg, New York, Springer, 287 p.

 

15- Habibi, S., Sharifipour, R., Danehkar, A., 2013. Investigation of Physical Sensitivity of Hormozgan Province Coastal areas Based on Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI). Oceanographic Journal, 4 (1), pp. 95-100.

 

16- Halpern, B.S., Walbridge, S., Selkoe, K.A., 2008, A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems, Science, (319), pp. 948–52.

 

17- Hussey, D., 2001. Strategy and planning, Wiley, New York, 296 pp.

 

18- Jafari, Sh. and Arazzadeh, y. 2011. Developing Strategic Management Factors for Anzali Wetland Conservation by SWOT. Wetland Ecobiology, 3(10), pp. 10-1. (In Persian).

 

19- Jafari, Sh., Sakyyeh, Y., Dezhkam, S., Alaviyan petrodi, S., Yaghobzadeh, M. and Danehkar, A., 2013. Development of Management Strategies for Conservation of Miankaleh Wetlands Using SWOT Analysis. Wetland Ecobiology, 5 (16), pp. 14-1. (In Persian).

 

20- Jafari Azar, S., 2015. Environmental risk assessment of international wetlands of southern coast of Iran (Unpublished master’s thesis). Khatam- Alanbia University of Technology Behbahan. (In Persian).

 

21- Jafari Azar, S., Sabzghabaei, G. R., Tavakoli, M. Dashti, S., 2015. An Attitude to Environmental Risk Assessment with an Approach to Wetlands Ecosystems. The first National Conference on Management and Planning, Training and Standardization of Iran, the Association for the Promotion of Science and Technology, November 14. (In Persian).

 

22- Jamei, M. and Hemadi, K., 2006. Investigating the status of water resources of Hour-Al-Azim wetland for use in land use plans using remote sensing techniques, seventh international seminar on river, Ahvaz Shahid Chamran University.

 

23- Karbasi, AS., Monavari, S.M., and Mogoei, R., 2007. Strategic Management in the Environment. First Edition. Kavosh Ghalam Publications. P 256. (In Persian).

 

24- Kim, K.G., Lee, H., Lee, D.H., 2011, Wetland restoration to enhance biodiversity inurban areas – a comparative analysis, Landscape and Ecological Engineering, 7, pp. 27–32.

 

25- Lambin, E.F., Geist, H., 2006, Land-Use and Land-Cover Change: Local Processes and Global Impacts, Springer.

 

26- Makrooni, S., 2015. Detection and prediction of the land use changes trend in Hour_Al_Azim Wetland using Remote Sensing and GIS (Unpublished master’s thesis). Khatam- Alanbia University of Technology Behbahan. (In Persian).

 

27- Malekhosseini, S. F., 2015. Environmental risk assessment of Dena protected area using multi-criteria decision-making method. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz Science and Research Branch. P 146. (In Persian).

 

28- Mohammadizadeh, M. Karbasi, A. Sahebi M., 2013. Environmental Management of Hasheylan Wetland by SWOT, Journal of Environmental Science, 57, pp. 13-27. (In Persian).

 

29- Moharram Nezhad, N., 2012. Management and environmental planning. Secend Edition. DeyNegar Publication, P 400. (In Persian).

 

30- Momeni, M., 2008. New Topics in Operations Research. University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. P. 352. (In Persian)

 

31- Nikolaou, I.E. and Evangelinos, K.I., 2010. A SWOT analysis of environmental management practices in Greek Mining and Mineral Industry. Resources Policy, 35, pp. 226–234.

 

32- Paliwal, R., 2006. EIA practice in India and its evaluation using SWOT analysis. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 26, pp. 492–510.

 

33- Saaty, T. L., 1980. The analytic hierarchy process. New York: McGraw-Hill.

 

34- Sabzghabaei, G R., Monavari, S. M., Riazi, B., Khorasani, N. A., Karami, M., 2012. Comparison Analysis of Pressures and Threats of Tropical Wetlands Using RAPPAM Methodology (Case Study: Khouzestan Province Wetlands). Wetland Ecobiology, 4(14), pp. 55-68. (In Persian).

 

35- Sabzghabaei, G. R., Monavari, S. M., Riazi, B., Khorasani, N. A., Karami, M., 2015. Analysing Pressures and Threats on the Southern Wetlands of Iran with the Application of RAPPAM Methodology (Case Study: Khuzestan Province). Global NEST Journal, 17 (2): pp. 344-356.

 

36- Saeedi, Y. and Dashti, S., 2017, Environmental Risk Assessment of Drying the 4th and 5th Reservoir of Hour-Al-Azim Wetland Aiming to Develop Azadegan Oil-Field Using TOPSIS Method, Journal of Irrigation Science and Engineering, 40(1-1), pp. 139-152. (In Persian).

 

37- Sugumaran, R., Harken, J. and Gerjevic, J., 2004. Using Remote Sensing Data to Study Wetland Dynamics in Iowa, Iowa Space Grant (Seed) Final Technical Report, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, pp. 1-17.

 

38- Thrazkar, M. H., Zibaei, M., Soltani, G., 2016. Identification and ranking of methods for revitalization of Bakhtegan International Wetland with Fuzzy Topsis Approach, Wetland Ecobiology, 8 (27), pp. 23-40. (In Persian).

 

39- Wilhite, D. A. and Glantz, M. H., 1985. Understanding the drought phenomenon: the role of definitions, Water International, 10 (3): 111-120.

 

40- Yaghoobzadeh, M., Danekar, A., Jabbarian Amiri, B., Ashrafi, S., 2012. Priority of sensitivity of coastal ecosystems in the south of the country using hierarchical analysis, the first national conference on the development of Makran coast and Islamic Republic's naval authority. (In Persian).

 

41- Zangeneh, M. 2014. Climatological Analysis of Dust Storms in Iran. Applied Climatology, 1(1): pp.1-12. (In Persian).

 

42- Zedler, J.B., Kercher, S., 2005, Wetland resources: status, trends, ecosystem services, and restorability, Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 30, pp. 39–74.