نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی ارشد آبخیزداری، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه اردکان.

2 استادیار دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه اردکان

3 دانشجوی دکتری علوم و مهندسی آب، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان.

چکیده

خشکسالی یک پدیده طبیعی است که باعث کمبود منابع آب در بخش­های مختلف شرب، صنعت و کشاورزی می­شود. این پدیده در مقایسه با سایر بلایای طبیعی از نظر شدت وقوع و هم از نظر میزان خساراتی که به بار می­آورد، از اهمیت بیشتری برخوردار است. تحقیق حاضر به‌منظور بررسی خشکسالی هواشناسی و هیدرولوژیکی و تأثیر آن بر کیفیت آب رودخانه گدارخوش واقع در استان ایلام در طول بازه­ی زمانی 1365 تا1391، صورت پذیرفته است. بدین منظور از آمار 26 ساله دما و بارش دو ایستگاه هواشناسی، داده دبی و کیفیت آب یک ایستگاه آب­سنجی در خروجی حوضه گدارخوش استفاده شد. هم­چنین شاخص جریان کمQ90  و شاخص هواشناسی SPI، شاخص خشکسالی هیدرولوژیک SDI در 5 بازه زمانی (3، 6، 12، 24، 48 ماهه) محاسبه گردید. نتایج بررسی خشکسالی هواشناسی و هیدرولوژیک حاکی از افزایش شدت و تداوم خشکسالی‌ها به ویژه خشکسالی هیدرولوژیک در سال­های اخیر و وجود تأخیر زمانی 12 ماهه بین وقوع خشکسالی هواشناسی و هیدرولوژیک بوده است. مقایسه دوره­های خشکسالی هواشناسی و هیدرولوژیک بر اساس شاخص­های SPI و SDI نشان می­دهد که حدود 55 درصد خشکسالی­های هیدرولوژیک در زمان خشکسالی­های هواشناسی که بارندگی­ها شرایط نرمالی را نداشته­اند، اتفاق افتاده است. هم­چنین بر اساس شاخص­های SPI و Q90 دوره­های مشترک خشکسالی هواشناسی و هیدرولوژیک 11 ماه می­باشد. در بررسی تغییرات فوق بر کیفیت آب رودخانه نتایج نشان داد که کاهش دبی رودخانه در اثر خشکسالی و افزایش دما باعث افزایش مقدار آنیون‌ها شامل سولفات، کلر و بیکربنات در سال­های خشک نسبت به میانگین دوره آماری، به میزان 09/4 درصد و میزان کاتیون‌ها شامل سدیم، کلسیم و منیزیم به میزان 04/8 درصد شده است. در سایر پارامترهای کیفی ازجمله هدایت الکتریکی، املاح محلول و نسبت جذب سدیم به ترتیب 24/0، 17/0 و 88/5 درصد افزایش مشاهده گردید ولی براساس نمودار شولر کیفیت آب تقریباً در محدوده قابل قبول می­باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment of Meteorological and Hydrological Drought and its Effect on Water Quality: (Case Study: Godarkhosh River)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Morteza Gheisouri 1
  • Somayeh Soltani-Gerdefaramarzi 2
  • Mohsen Ghasemi 3

1 MSc Student of Watershed Management, Collage of Agriculture and Natural Resource, Ardakan University.

2 Assistant Professor, Collage of Agriculture and Natural Resource, Ardakan University,

3 PhD Student, Water Science and Engineering, Collage of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology.

چکیده [English]

Drought is a natural phenomenon that causes water resources shortage in various sectors such as drinking water, industry and agriculture. Drought is one of the climatic phenomena that can be observed not only in arid and semi-arid regions, but also alternately in wet areas. It should be noted that aridity and drought are different, aridity is a climatic trait specific to arid and semi-arid regions and is a permanent feature of the climate of the dry region (Eslamian et al, 2012). Liu et al (2011) with the study of meteorological and hydrological droughts in Oklahoma State discovered the two-day drought incidence of 2 months and the correlation coefficient between SPI and SDI profiles in an optimal state was 0.63. Eskandari-Damaneh (2015) investigated temporal and spatial relationships between meteorological and hydrological droughts in Tehran province. The results showed a correlation of 99% between meteorological and hydrological droughts and the increasing trend of drought in Tehran province. Mahmoudi et al. (2015) assessed the drought of meteorology in Sistan and Baluchestan Province using a standard score index and its impact on water quality in the province. Delpla et al (2009) examined the impact of climate change on the quality of surface waters in relation to drinking water production and concluded that climate change has reduced the quality of drinking water that has potential health impacts. Also, Mosley (2015) indicated that drought increased salinity, algae and soluble ions, which greatly reduced the quality of freshwater. According to drought studies, the main objective of this study is to study the drought of meteorology and hydrology, as well as to determine the probable delay between the occurrence of these two types of drought and their impact on river water quality, for water resources management in Godarkhosh basin which is one of the most important basins in Ilam province.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drought
  • İndexes
  • Hydrological
  • Delay
  • water quality

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