نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 نویسنده مسئول، استاد دانشکده عمران، دانشگاه تبریز

2 دانشجوی دکتری مهندسی عمران- سازه های هیدرولیکی، دانشگاه تبریز.

چکیده

عملکرد نامناسب و عدم دقت در طراحی و ساخت دریچه‌ها باعث خسارات مالی و جانی در پایین­دست سد می­شود. این مقاله طراحی و ساخت دریچه و هوشمندسازی آن­ها را دنبال می­کند. با استفاده از خطی­سازی معادله­های غیر­خطی دبی خروجی و ارتفاع آب درون مخزن در اطراف نقطه‌ی کار، نقطه‌ی تعادل دبی سیل ورود و خروج از سد تعیین شد. با تغییر پارامتر بازشدگی دریچه، نقطه تعادل در مکان هندسی منطبق با شرایط مطلوب قرار گرفت. با توجه به نقطه‌ی تعادل هیدروگراف دبی ورودی و خروجی و نمودار معادله­های خطی دبی خروجی، ارتفاع و حجم آب ذخیره شده در مخزن، ابعاد دریچه­ها طراحی شد که قابل ساخت است. سیستم­های هوشمند از المان­های الکترونیکی، میکرو پرسسور، سنسورهای سنجش ارتفاع آب و دستگاه­های فرستنده و گیرنده امواج آلتراسونیک و موتورهای الکتریکی، پس از طراحی ساخته شدند که باعث هوشمند­سازی و خودکار شدن دریچه‌ها می­گردند. در آزمایشگاه سیستم­های هوشمند دریچه نصب و به­صورت مکرر مورد آزمایش قرار گرفت که نتایج آن­ها مطلوب بود. دریچه­های خودکار بر اساس شرایط بهره­برداری، درخواست متقاضیان پایین دست و ارتفاع آب درون مخزن باز و بسته می­شود که باعث بهره­برداری بهینه و استفاده مناسب از آب درون مخزن می­شود. با هوشمندسازی دریچه، سیلاب­ها کنترل و مصارف آب در پایین­دست مدیریت می­شود و بازده سد افزایش می­یابد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Determination of Opening Level, Spillway Gate Dimensions and its Control using Linearization of the Outgoing Discharge Equations and the Water Level of the Dam Reservoir

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Ali Lotfollahi-Yaghin 1
  • Mohammad Rahim Afshani 2

1 professor, PhD, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Tabriz, Iran.

2 PhD Candidate, MSC, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Tabriz, Iran

چکیده [English]

Spillway gates are used to increase water depths on power generating turbines, regulate the flow passing the spillway and augment the safety of the dam and its installations during flooding.Inappropriate performance, inaccuracy in determining the proper dimensions and sudden opening of the spillway gate(s) causes vibration, overtopping, instability in the dam, and also damages to the dam's body, its installations and even downstream areas. Regarding the rainfall reduction, adjusting reservoir level, increasing water pressure on power generating turbines and proper use of water inside the reservoir, determining the accurate dimensions of the gate and making smart spillway gate(s)  are required. Using the technique of linearizing the equations of discharge passing spillway and water level inside the reservoir and the point of equilibrium of the incoming and outgoing discharge hydrograph, the dimensions of the spillway gate are carefully designed and constructed in accordance with the environmental conditions and its installation site. By smarting the spillway gate and determining its precise dimensions, it will be possible to control floods remotely, manage water consumption, save manpower and reduce visual error.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: linearization of output rate equation
  • linearization of equation of the water level (depth)
  • overflow gate
  • optimal operation of the reservoir

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