نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهشی پژوهشکده خرما و میوه‌های گرمسیری، موسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی

2 استادیار ، دانشکده مهندسی علوم آب، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز.

10.22055/jise.2019.27739.1809

چکیده

روند کاهشی منابع آب، اهمیت استفاده بهینه آن را از نظر اقتصادی و اجتماعی دو چندان نموده است. به­ منظور بررسی اثرات آب زیرزمینی کم­ عمق بر رشد نهال­ های خرما و تعیین سطح کم­ آبیاری،آزمایشی در اهواز به­ صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه بلوک­ های کامل تصادفی مشتمل بر سه عمق آب آبیاری و چهار نوع زهکشی در مجموع با 12 تیمار در 3 تکرار روی نهال­ های کشت بافتی خرما رقم برحی در لایسیمترهای زهکش­دار طی سال­ های 1392 تا 1395 اجرا شد. نتایج نشان داد 100 درصد نهال­ ها زنده مانده و رشد نمودند. حجم آب زیرزمینی صعود­کرده با میزان آب آبیاری ارتباط مستقیم داشت. با افزایش میزان آب آبیاری، میزان صعود آب افزایش و با کاهش میزان آب آبیاری، میزان صعود آب کاهش پیدا کرد. با افزایش سن نهال میزان صعود آب افزایش داشت.  در سال دوم پس از کشت، میزان صعود آب بیشتر از سال اول بود. با افزایش سن نهال میزان زه­آب کاهش یافت و در سال دوم پس از کشت میزان زه­آب کمتر از سال اول بود. به عبارت دیگر با رشد نهال و مصرف بیشتر آب جهت تبخیر و تعرق، آب کمتری از لایه­ های خاک شسته و به زهکش منتقل ­شد. نتایج تجزیه واریانس تیمارهای آزمایشی بر تعداد، طول و عرض برگ و برگ­چه و ارتفاع طوقه نهال در بازه­ های زمانی مختلف نشان داد کم­ آبیاری، زهکشی و اثرات متقابل آن­ها تأثیر معنی­ داری بر خصوصیات رشد رویشی ندارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Study on the Effect of Deficit Irrigation Composing with Controlled Vegetative on Date Palm Seedlings (CV. Barhee)

نویسندگان [English]

  • AbdulHamid Mohebi 1
  • Parvaneh Tishezan 2

1 Assistant Professor at Date Palm and Tropical Fruit Research Center, Horticultural Science Research Institute, the Organization for Agricultural Research, Education, and Promotion

2 Assistant Professor, Water Science Engineering Faculty, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.

چکیده [English]

The world population today is about 6.5 billion, and it is estimated that it will increase to 9.1 billion by the year 2050 (UN, 2004). It is estimated that irrigation consumes more than 80% of the good quality water. Due to the reduction in available water resources, the application of water-saving strategies, such as deficit irrigation and the use of underground water resources, can reduce water usage for irrigation. One strategy for the source control is to restrict the outflow in field drains such that the height of the water table is maintained at a shallow depth that allows certain crops to utilize groundwater to satisfy a portion of their water requirements. Shallow groundwater can be a significant source of water for agricultural production, especially during the drought period. The fraction of the crop water demand that can be met by shallow water tables depends on the crop grown, irrigation and drainage management, the soil type, the depth to the water table, and the shallow groundwater salinity(Ayars et al. 2006). A wide range of crops has been successfully grown that obtained a significant portion of the crop water requirement from shallow groundwater. The types of crops range from truck crops (pepper and carrots) to grain, hay, and some tree crops (e.g. date palm) that have salt tolerances from sensitive (lettuce) to tolerant (cotton). Although such observations have been made for moderately salt-tolerant perennial crops, such as alfalfa hay, vine and tree crops have a larger potential for in- situ water use from shallow groundwater than do annual crops because of their well-developed and established root system after the first growing season. Hutmacher et al. (1996) showed that cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) crops can obtain 20 to 50% of their water requirement from shallow groundwater under the proper irrigation management. The timing and amounts of surface irrigation impact the extent to which crops will utilize shallow groundwater. Judicious use of deficit irrigation in combination with shallow groundwater management is necessary to achieve optimal results (Ayars et al., 1999).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Water Table Control
  • Groundwater Rising
  • Water requirement
  • Lysimeter
  • Date Palm Tissue Culture Seedlings

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