عنوان مقاله [English]
The world population today is about 6.5 billion, and it is estimated that it will increase to 9.1 billion by the year 2050 (UN, 2004). It is estimated that irrigation consumes more than 80% of the good quality water. Due to the reduction in available water resources, the application of water-saving strategies, such as deficit irrigation and the use of underground water resources, can reduce water usage for irrigation. One strategy for the source control is to restrict the outflow in field drains such that the height of the water table is maintained at a shallow depth that allows certain crops to utilize groundwater to satisfy a portion of their water requirements. Shallow groundwater can be a significant source of water for agricultural production, especially during the drought period. The fraction of the crop water demand that can be met by shallow water tables depends on the crop grown, irrigation and drainage management, the soil type, the depth to the water table, and the shallow groundwater salinity(Ayars et al. 2006). A wide range of crops has been successfully grown that obtained a significant portion of the crop water requirement from shallow groundwater. The types of crops range from truck crops (pepper and carrots) to grain, hay, and some tree crops (e.g. date palm) that have salt tolerances from sensitive (lettuce) to tolerant (cotton). Although such observations have been made for moderately salt-tolerant perennial crops, such as alfalfa hay, vine and tree crops have a larger potential for in- situ water use from shallow groundwater than do annual crops because of their well-developed and established root system after the first growing season. Hutmacher et al. (1996) showed that cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) crops can obtain 20 to 50% of their water requirement from shallow groundwater under the proper irrigation management. The timing and amounts of surface irrigation impact the extent to which crops will utilize shallow groundwater. Judicious use of deficit irrigation in combination with shallow groundwater management is necessary to achieve optimal results (Ayars et al., 1999).
1- Abdel Daiem, S., Hoevenaars, J., Mollinga, p.p., Scheumann, W., Slootweg, R. and Steenbergen, F.V., 2005. Agricultural drainage: Towards an integrated approach. Irrigation and Drainage Systems, 19, pp.71-87.
2- Akram, M. and Akram, S., 2004. Controlled drainage, a solution to improve irrigation efficiency in drained lands of Iran. In Proceedings of the Third Technical Drainage Workshop, pp.21-32. (In Persian).
3- Aliehyaei, M. and Behbahanizadeh, A.A., 1993. Descriptions of methods for soil chemical analysis (Vol. I). No. 893. Soil and Water Research Institute. Agricultural Research, Extension and Education Organization. Ministry of Agriculture, pp.116. (In Persian).
4- Aliehyaei, M., 2006. Descriptions of methods for soil chemical analysis (Vol. 2). No. 1024. Soil and Water Research Institute. Agricultural Research, Extension and Education Organization. Ministry of Agriculture, pp.129. (In Persian).
5- Alihouri, M., Torahi, A. and Moazed, H., 2014. Effect of irrigation interval on surviving and vegetative growth of date palm cultivars (cv. Sayer). Journal of water engineering, pp. 8-58. (In Persian)
6- Allen, R. G., Pereira, L. S., Raes, D. and Smith, M., 1998. Crop evapotranspiration (Guidelines for computing crop water requirements). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations .Irrigation and Drainage, paper 56. Rome. pp.300.
7- Askri, B., Ahmed, A.T., Abichou, T. and Bouhlila, R., 2014. Effects of shallow water table, salinity and frequency of irrigation water on the date palm water use. Journal of Hydrology, 513, pp.81–90.
8- Battiliani, A., Anconelli, S. and Guidoboni, G., 2004. Water table level effect on the water balance and yield of two pear rootstock. ISHS Acta Horticulture, 664; pp.47-54.
9- Boland, A.M., Yerie, P.H., Mitchell, P.D., Irvine, J.L. and Nardella, N., 1996. The effect of a saline and non-saline water table on peach tree water use, growth, productivity and ion uptake. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 47, pp.21-139.
10- Elkhoumsi, W., Hammani, A., Bouarfa, S., Kuper, M., Hassan, I., Umr G-eau, I. and Umr G-eau, C., 2015. Contribution of saline groundwater table to date palm water use in oases area. In 26th ERC and 66th IEC, ICID.
11- Grismer, M.E., and Gates, T.K., 1988. Estimating saline water table contribution to crop water use. California Agriculture, 42, pp.3–24.
12- Jain, B.L. and Pareek, O.P., 1989. Effect of drip irrigation and mulch on soil and performance of date palm under saline water irrigation. Annuals of Arid Zone, 28, pp.3-4.
13- Mahjoubi, A., Hooshmand, A.B., Naseri, A.A and Jafari, S., 2014. Effect of controlled drainage on reducing drainage coefficient and drainage volume in sugarcane fields of Imam Khomeini Agro- industry. Journal of Water and Soil, 27(6), pp.1133-1144. (In Persian)
14- Moor, R.D., 2004. Construction of a Mariotte bottle for constant rate tracer injection into small streams. Streamline Watershed Management Bulletin, 8(1), pp.15-16.
15- Parsons, J. E., Skaggs, R.W. and Doty, E.W., 1990. Simulation of controlled drainage in open – ditch drainage systems. Agricultural Water Management, 18, pp.301-316.
16- Sadeghi Lari, A., 2016. Effects of controlled drainage systems to prevent chemical soil degradation in the Area under sugarcane cultivation. Environmental Erosion Research, 5:4(20), pp.58-72. (In Persian)
17- Sepaskhah, A.R. and Karimi-Goghari. Sh., 2005. Shallow groundwater contribution to pistachio water use. Agriculture Water Management, 72, pp.69-80.
18- Skaggs, R.W., 1999. Water table management: Subirrigation and controlled drainage. In: Skaggs, R.W. and Van Schilfgaarde, J. (eds.), Agricultural drainage, pp.695-718.
19- Tishehzan, P. Naseri, A.A, Hassanoghli, A. R. and Meskarbashi, M., 2011. Effects of shallow saline water table management on the root zone salt balance and date palm growth in South-West Iran. Research on Crops, 12(3), pp.839-847.
20- Tishehzan, P. Naseri, A.A, Hassanoghli, A. R. and Meskarbashi, M., 2014. Lysimeter water and salt balance study of the roots of palm trees under different field managements. Iranian Water Research Journal, 7(12), pp.203-212. (In Persian)
21- Wahba, M. A. S., El-Ganainy M. A., and Amer, M. H., 2003. Water table management for irrigation water saving. In 9th International Drainage Workshop, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
22- Zied, H.A., Tibor, T., Mohamed-Khaled, I. and Salem, B., 2017. Effects of excessive irrigation of date palm on soil salinization, shallow groundwater properties and water use in a Saharan oasis. Environmental Earth Sciences, 76(17), pp.1-12.
23- Zeineldin, F.I. and Aldakheel, Y.J., 2010. Evaluation contribution of ground shallow water table to irrigation of date palm trees under irrigation reduction in Saudi Arabia. International Conferences on Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (ICCCE).