پیش بینی سیل وکنترل هوشمند آن از راه دور

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد دانشکده عمران، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

2 استاد دانشکده عمران، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران.

3 دانشجوی دکتری مهندسی عمران-سازه‌های هیدرولیکی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران.

چکیده

برای افزایش نتیجه بهره­برداری از مخازن و کاهش هزینه­ی احداث سیستم‌های تخلیه اضطراری سیلاب­ها، جلوگیری از خسارات مالی و جانی در پایین دست سد، پیش­بینی سیل و کنترل آن ضروری است. در این مقاله سیل طرح یا سیل خطرساز پیش­بینی و از راه دور مدیریت و کنترل شده است. سیستم­های هوشمند با استفاده از تبدیلz، میکروکنترلرها، حسگر، ارتفاع سنج آلتراسونیک، مدارهای فرستنده، گیرنده امواج رادیویی و ماهواره­ای، ریزپردازنده، موتور الکتریکی، قطعات الکترونیکی دیگر و نرم­افزارهای مناسب، طراحی و ساخته شدند. سیستم در دهانه­ی رودخانه­ی ورودی به مخزن و در ارتفاع مناسب نصب می­شود. با نمونه­برداری از سطح آب، ارتفاع و حجم آب ورود به مخزن مشخص و نمونه‌ها به­وسیله­ی امواج رادیویی و ماهواره­ای به سیستم مرکزی در اتاق کنترل ارسال می­گردند. اطلاعات ارسالی در سیستم مرکزی دریافت و پس از آشکار شدن مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار می­گیرند. در اتاق کنترل، هیدروگراف سیل، حداکثر ارتفاع و حجم آب ورود به مخزن روی صفحه‌ی مانیتور نشان داده می­شوند. سیستم هوشمند، با توجه به اطلاعات دریافت شده، به­وسیله‌ی موتور الکتریکی یا دستگاه­های هیدرولیکی و پنوماتیکی به­صورت اتوماتیک، دریچه و در صورت لزوم دریچه­های سد را باز می­کند. با نصب سیستم هوشمند، سیل شناسایی و بهره‌برداری از آب درون مخزن مدیریت می­شود و ایمنی سد در برابر سیل تحقق می­یابد. با نصب سیستم هوشمند نیروی انسانی کاهش یافته و خطای دید آن­ها برطرف می­شود و از خطرات سیل در پایین­دست سد جلوگیری به­عمل می­آید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Prediction of Flood and its Smart Remote Control

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Ali Lotfollahi-Yaghin 1
  • Mohammad Taghi Aalami 2
  • Mohammad Rahim Afshani 3
1 Professor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
2 Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
3 PhD Candidate, MSC, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Heavy, long-term precipitations can lead to severe floods in most drainage basins, thus causing financial losses and casualties­ (Fotakis and Sidiropoulos, 2014, Avila-Melgar, et al. 2017). Low precipitation, lack of surface water and groundwater, and increased demand for water calls for optimized use of reservoirs and floods. Inevitably, critical points should be identified and simple non-structural and structural methods or a combination of both, which are environmentally friendly and feasible, should be employed for flood prediction and control. In addition to imposing considerable costs, construction of flood control installations cannot fully eliminate the flood risks and, therefore, more severe floods may still lead to disasters. Construction of large flood control structures such as dykes is not only financially unjustifiable, but also inappropriate as solution both environmentally and socioeconomically. Flood prediction and alarm systems are among the non-structural criteria the importance of which are further realized over time. Installation and implementation of smart flood prediction and alarm systems can lead to reduced casualties and damages from both perspectives of flood risk management and nonstructural management.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Design Flood Hydrograph
  • Flood Forecasting
  • Flood Control
  • spillway Gate control
  • Z- Transformation
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