اثر سطوح مختلف آب آبیاری و کود نیتروژن بر خصوصیات کمی و کیفی گوجه‌فرنگی در روش آبیاری قطره‌ای (نواری تیپ)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهشی بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان سمنان (شاهرود)، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، شاهرود، ایران.

2 استادیار پژوهشی بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان سمنان (شاهرود)، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، شاهرود، ایران.

3 عضو هیات علمی بخش تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان سمنان (شاهرود)، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، شاهرود، ایران.

4 محقق بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان سمنان (شاهرود) سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، شاهرود، ایران.

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی اثر مقادیر مختلف آب آبیاری و کود نیتروژن بر خصوصیات کمی و کیفی گوجه‌فرنگی در آبیاری قطره­ای، پژوهشی در اراضی مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی استان سمنان (شاهرود) به مدت دو سال انجام شد. طرح به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با دو فاکتور  و در چهار تکرار انجام شد. فاکتورها عبارت بودند از : 1- آب آبیاری در چهار سطح (40، 60، 80  و 100 درصد نیاز)  2 -  کود نیتروژن در سه سطح (60 ،80 و 100 درصد نیاز). نیاز آبی گیاه با روش پنمن _ مانتیث محاسبه و با دور آبیاری سه روز به مزرعه داده شد. نتایج نشان داد، اثر جداگانه و اثر متقابل آب و کود نیتروژن بر عملکرد و برخی خصوصیات کیفی میوه از جمله تجمع ازت، بریکس، pH و ویتامین C معنی­دار شد. بیشترین عملکرد (4/89 تن در هکتار) و کارایی مصرف آب (8/15 کیلوگرم برای هر مترمکعب در هکتار) از تیمار آبی 80  و کودی 60 درصد به­دست آمد. متوسط حجم آب مصرفی در تیمارهای 40، 60، 80 و 100 درصد نیاز آبی به­ترتیب برابر 3000، 4500، 5500 و 6500 مترمکعب در هکتار بود. مقدار کود نیتروژن مصرفی در سطوح کودی 60، 80 و 100 درصد به­ترتیب برابر 150، 200 و 250 کیلوگرم در هکتار شد. تیمار آب 80  و کودی 60 درصد به­عنوان تیمار برتر اتتخاب ‌شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Water and N Fertilizer on the Yield and Fruit Quality of Tomatoes under Drip (Tape) Irrigation System

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Hassan Mousavi Fazl 1
  • Seyeed Ziaolhagh 2
  • Ali Reza Mohammadi 3
  • Faramaz Faeznia 4
1 Agricultural Engineering Research Department, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center of Semnan Province (Shahrood), AREEO, Shahrood, Iran.
2 Agricultural Engineering Research Department, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center of Semnan Province (Shahrood), AREEO, Shahrood, Iran.
3 Seed and Plant Improvement Research Department, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center of Semnan Province (Shahrood), AREEO, Shahrood, Iran.
4 Soil and Water Research Department, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center of Semnan Province (Shahrood), AREEO, Shahrood, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Being vulnerable to food shortage, tomatoes are dependent on nitrogen fertilizer  for their growth and crop yields (Zomorrodi, 2006). In effect, there is a close relationship between the amount of nitrogen fertilizer consumed and the accumulation of nitrate, which poses a threat to consumer health (Mousavi Fazl, 2005). The accumulation of nitrate in tomatoes has a considerable negative effect on its quality and increase the amount of toxic substances in tomatoes (Malakuti et al., 2005). The results of many studies show that the appropriate combination of nitrogen fertilizer treatments and the irrigation regime in such a way that the plant encounters a certain level of water stress during a particular period or throughout the growing season may lead to the maximum efficiency of water usage in the plant (Bagheri et al., 2016). Zomorrodi (2006) examined the effect of deficit irrigation on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of tomatoes. The results showed that the effects of irrigation water on vitamin C, acidity and soluble solids were significant. Khorramian (2015) also studied different levels of drip irrigation with the supply of 40, 70 and 100% water requirement on the yield and water use efficiency in tomatos. The findings of this study showed that maximum yield was obtained from drip irrigation with 100% water level, while 40% water level treatment had the highest water use efficiency.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Irrigation Water
  • N fertilizer
  • nitrate
  • tomatoes
  • tomato quality
  • Yield
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