بررسی تأثیرپذیری سطح آب زیرزمینی از نشت و نفوذ در کانال‌های انتقال آب (مطالعه موردی: بلداجی)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 فارغ‌التحصیل دکتری آبیاری و زهکشی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شهرکرد و و عضو باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان و نخبگان، واحد مشهد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مشهد، ایران.

2 دانشیار دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شهرکرد.

3 استادیار دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شهرکرد.

4 استاد دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد.

چکیده

آب زیرزمینی منبع اصلی تأمین آب آشامیدنی بیش از 5/1 میلیارد نفر در سراسر جهان، از جمله مناطق خشک و نیمه­خشکی چون ایران است. پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی تأثیر نشت و نفوذ بر تغذیه آب زیرزمینی، در شرایط قرارگیری تراز سطح ایستابی در اعماق متفاوت انجام شده است. برای انجام این پژوهش، کانال خاکی بلداجی با خاک لومی، در شهرستان بروجن استان چهارمحال و بختیاری، به­عنوان نمونه اصلی انتخاب شد. ابعاد این کانال براساس روابط تشابه ابعادی و با در نظر گرفتن مقیاس 13/0 به مدل آزمایشگاهی واقع در آزمایشگاه مکانیک خاک دانشگاه شهرکرد و در کانالی با شیب ثابت، طول یک متر و عرض 59/0 متر انتقال یافت. در این پژوهش، 9 دبی (بین 40 تا 161 لیتر در ثانیه) و چهار سطح ایستابی (75/0، 8/0، 85/0 و 9/0 متر از سطح خاک) به دبی قابل کاربرد در مدل تبدیل شد. کلیه آزمایش­ها برای دو مقطع مثلثی و ذوزنقه و در سه تکرار انجام گردید. نتایج مدل فیزیکی آزمایشگاه نشان داد نفوذ آب از کانال باعث بالا آمدن سطح آب زیرزمینی بین 5/3 تا 11 سانتی­متر می­گردد. مقادیر تغذیه آب زیرزمینی با استفاده از روش بیلان آب محاسبه شد و نتایج نشانگر تخمین­های نامطلوب این روش برای هر دو مقطع مثلث و ذوزنقه است (R2 بزرگتر از 72/0 و 62/0 به­ترتیب برای مقطع ذوزنقه و مثلث؛ RMSE بزرگتر از 166 و 157 به­ترتیب برای مقطع ذوزنقه و مثلث؛ و MAE بزرگتر از 154 و 142 به­ترتیب برای مقطع ذوزنقه و مثلث). بنابراین، این روش برای تخمین تغذیه در منطقه بروجن پیشنهاد نمی­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Impressibility of Groundwater Level from Infiltration and Seepage in Water Conveyance Channels (Case Study: Boldaji)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ehsan Tavakoli 1
  • Behzad Ghorbani 2
  • Mehi Radfar 3
  • Hossein Samadi Borujeni 3
  • Bijan Ghahraman 4
1 Ph.D. Graduate, Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran, and P.G. Researcher, Young Researchers and Elite Club, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad.
2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.
4 Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Groundwater is the main source of potable water for more than 1.5 billion people throughout the world, including arid and semi-arid regions like Iran. Literature review showed that there is no use of the dimensional similitude and physical modelling for estimating seepage from channels and its effect on the groundwater, yet. Thus, in order to better understand this phenomenon, the current study aimed at investigating the effects of infiltration and seepage on the groundwater recharge at different water level depths. Numerous studies have been conducted to assess the groundwater recharge, such as Yin et al. (2011) that utilized some methods such as the water table fluctuation method and the Darcian flux and water balance method in China. Similarly, using data from some irrigation projects and piezometric level data, Ochoa et al. (2013) evaluated the effects of seepage on the groundwater recharge in New Mexico. Moreover, Demlie (2015) compared the water balance method and the chloride mass balance method to quantify and investigate the groundwater recharge in Ethiopia. In the current research, the earth channel of Boldaji with loamy soil, located in Borujen city, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, was chosen as the prototype. The dimensions of such a channel were transmitted to laboratory models at soil mechanics lab at Shahrekord University. Using dimensional similitude equations, 9 discharges (40-161 l/s) and 4 water-table depths (0.75, 0.8, 0.85 and 0.9 m from soil surface) were converted to the applicable discharges of the model. The results of the laboratory physical model showed that the infiltrated water raised the groundwater 3.5-11 cm. The values of recharged groundwater were, in turn, calculated by means of water balance method and the results showed no suitable estimates of such a method for the trapezoid and triangle cross-sections.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Earth channel
  • Physical modelling
  • Dimensional similitude
  • Water balance method

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