عنوان مقاله [English]
Water scarcity is a major constraint in the development of rice farming in some parts of the world. In many areas, the volume of water consumed in the field and during the growing season of rice is usually more than the actual requirement due to traditional flood irrigation. In the province of Khuzestan, irrigation water requirement is potentially high due to the coincidence of rice cultivation with the beginning of hot months of the year. In traditional irrigation management, regular water entry and exit from the basins is commonly used to reduce water temperature and create a cool environment for plant development. This system causes a lot of water losses. It seems that a change in the irrigation method of rice fields is necessary. The application of new technologies, such as pressurized irrigation systems, can be an appropriate approach to reduce future problems related to increasing water shortages. In this regard, the study of pressurized irrigation systems has been considered as one of the strategies for reducing water consumption and increasing water productivity in rice cultivation in the research program. Result of a research in Pakistan about water use efficiency and economic feasibility of growing rice with sprinkler irrigation showed that the application of this system increased the yield of rice by 18%, while the water consumed was 35% less than the traditional irrigation system (McCauley, 1990).
1- Blackwell, J., Meyer, W. and Smith, R. C.G., 1985. Growth and yield of rice under sprinkler irrigation on a free-draining soil. Australian journal of experimental agriculture, 25(3), pp.636-641.
2- Fukai, S. and Inthapan, P. 1988. Growth and yield of rice cultivars under sprinkler irrigation in south-easternQueensland. 1. Effects of sowing time. Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 28, 237-242.
3- Gilani, A. and Rezaei, M. 2001.Comparison of Sprinkler and Flood Irrigation Application for Rice Direct Seeding Cultivation in Khuzestan. Agricultural Research,Education and Extension Organization (AREEO). Final report.(in persian).
4- Goto, Y., Ando, T. & Nakagawa, K., .1974. The influence of sprinkler irrigation on flowering and fertilization of paddy rice cultivated in upland field. Bulletin of the Tokai Kinki National Agricultural Experiment Station.
5- Guerra, L. C. 1998. Producing more rice with less water from irrigated systems.(vol. 5). IWMI.
6- Kahlown, M. A., Raoof, A., Zubair, M. & Kemper, W. D., 2007. Water use efficiency and economic feasibility of growing rice and wheat with sprinkler irrigation in the Indus Basin of Pakistan. Agricultural water management, 87(3), pp.292-298
7- McCauley, G. N., 1990. Sprinkler vs. flood irrigation in traditional rice production regions of southeast Texas. Agronomy Journal, 82(4), pp.677-683.
8- Rosegrant, M. W., Cai, X. and Cline, S. A., 2002. Water and food to 2025: policy responses to the threat of scarcity (No. 594-2016-39937).
9- Westcott, M. P. and Vines, K.W., 1986. A Comparison Of Sprinkler And Flood Irrigation For Rice 1. Agronomy Journal, 78(4), pp.637-640.