ارزیابی بحران آب زیرزمینی در مناطق خشک و نیمه‌خشک (مطالعه موردی: دشت جغین و توکهور)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشجوی دکتری علوم و مهندسی آبخیزداری، گرایش مدیریت حوزه‌های آبخیز، گروه منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه هرمزگان، بندرعباس، ایران

چکیده

مدیریت منابع آب به ویژه آب های زیرزمینی ،در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک، اهمیت خاصی دارد. عوامل مختلف طبیعیو انسانی در چند دهه اخیر موجب به وجود آمدن شرایط بحرانی واُفت سطح آبزیرزمینی در بیشتر مناطق کشور شده است. در این تحقیق، نوسانات سطح آبزیرزمینی دشت جغین و توکهور در استان هرمزگان طی دوره آماری 20 سال (ازسالآبی71-70 تا 90-89)بااستفادهازهیدروگرافواحدموردبررسیقرارگرفت، سپس به‌بررسی جامع وضعیت افت سطح آب‌های زیرزمینی و با در نظر گرفتن عوامل اساسی اثرگذار و آسیب‌های ناشی از آن پرداخته شده است و در نهایت با شناسایی عمده پارامترهای مؤثر و نظر به‌روند بحرانی کاهش سطح آب‌های زیرزمینی، راه‌کارهای مدیریتی مناسب در جهت کنترل و مقابله با این بحران ارائه شده است. نتایج سطح آب در 30 چاه مشاهده‌ای بیانگر آن است که متوسط افت آب زیرزمینی در حوضه جغین و توکهور، برای مدت مورد مطالعه برابر 16/8 متر بوده است و در صورت ادامه روند کنونی شرایط تغذیه و تخلیه و عدم انجام اقدامات جدی و عملی جهت کاهش برداشت بی‌رویه، طی 10 سال آینده سطح آب زیرزمینی این دشت،‌ بیش از 2/4 متر دیگر افت خواهد داشت، با حفاظت آب در کشاورزی و تهیه الگوی کشت بهینه، کنترل میزان پمپاژ آب و قیمت‌گذاری آب در بخش کشاورزی می‌توان میزان افت سطح آب زیرزمینی و پیامدهای ناشی از آن را به‌حداقل رساند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment of Groundwater Crisis in Arid and Semiarid Areas (Case Study: Jaghin and Tokahor Plain)

نویسنده [English]

  • Hamid Moslemi
Ph.D. Student of Watershed Science and Engineering, Management of Watersheds, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran
چکیده [English]

Groundwater represents one of the largest stocks of accessible freshwater and accounts for about one-third of freshwater consumption globally (Famiglietti, 2014). Overpumping the groundwater, especially in arid and semiarid areas, has had negative effects on the environment. Recognizing the productivity of water and soil resources is the first step toward planning and managing the increasing optimum operation of these resources. Water resource management, especially that of groundwater, is very important in the arid and semiarid regions (Moslemi, 2015). Water Crisis is one of the most important environmental hazards that have social and economic consequences. Now we have a serious challenge in countries that they have been overpumping groundwater, which further extraction from groundwater table has caused a decrease in the groundwater level in most areas in the world (Moslemi,2015). Statistics in world resources show that groundwater decreasing process has hard conditions. The index of the water crisis in Iran, considering its presence in a dry and semi-arid region, is more unfavorable than the average level in the world, in other words, up to one percent of world populations live in Iran while its portion from sweet water resources is just 0.36 %. On the other hand, all the world just uses 45% of the resources, but Iran has used 66% of its saved sweet water (Khorani and Khajeh, 2014). In population program and their environment national organization, Iran is at the 100th place on the list of countries that their rehabilitation of sweet water per person is low.  According to international standards, Iran will soon be in a state of a scarcity of water and will be in a group of countries facing a water crisis (Bargahi and Mousavi, 2007). Research shows that from 609 aquifers in Iran, 300 aquifers are in critical conditions and deemed among forbidden regions for over-extraction and another 40 aquifers are determined to be in critical conditions (Moslemi and Darvishi, 2018). So, in these conditions, we must study more about Iran’s aquifers; although with an exact prediction of groundwater table changes, we can use that in trust water preparation planning and also, in water resource management. Jaghin and Tokahor aquifers in the southeast of Iran are in arid climate conditions, and during recent years, it has been facing a low drop of water table. If we want to have a good decision and correct the planning in management and the extraction methods from these aquifers, it is necessary that the underground water in these plains be investigated in a long period and the complete management solutions be determined. Our goal in this study is investigating the water crisis that happened in Jaghin and Tokahor aquifers and its causing factors. We hope that this project will be one of the important steps for attracting attention to the water crisis in this case study.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Jaghin and Tokahor Aquifer
  • Development
  • Agriculture
  • Management

1-    Balali, H. S.,  Khalilian,S.,  and Ahmadian, M.,  2010. Analysis of Impacts of Irrigation Water Pricing on Groundwater Balance.  Agricultural Economics & Development, 24(2): 185-194.

 

2-     Bargahi, KH., and Mousavi, S.A.,2007. Effect of water table depths and salinity of groundwater on contribution of groundwater to evapotranspiration of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)  in  Greenhouse, Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 3(2): 59-69. (in Persian).

 

3-    EsmaiInejad, d.,  Tavousi, MT.,  and Eskandari sani, M.,  2014. Water crisis and the need to change the pattern of cultivation in arid areas: A case study of the south plains of Bardaskan. Geographical explorations of Wilderness Areas, 2( 3): 41-62. (in Persian).

 

4-    Javan, J., and  Fal Soleyman, M., 2008. Water Crisis and Importance of Water Productivity in Agriculture in Dry Area of Iran (Case Study : Birjand Plain). Geography and Development Iranian Journal , 6(11): 115-138, (in Persian).

 

5-    Khorani A., and Khajeh M.,  2014. An Investigation on the coincidence between Trend of  drought and groundwater levels decline (A Case Study: Plain of Darab). MJSP. 18 (2): 57-80. (in Persian).

 

6-    Mohamed, M,. Al-Suwaidi, N.,. Abdelazim, E., and Al Mulla, M., 2016.Groundwater modeling as a precursor tool for water resources sustainability in Khatt area, UAE”. Environmental Earth Sciences, 75, pp. 400-418.

 

7-    Moslemi, H., 2018. Groundwater over- exploitation in the Hashtbandi plain the  province of Hormozgan its Consequences. Journal of Whatershed Management Research, 30(4), pp.3-19(in Persian).

 

8-     Moslemi, H., and Drvishi, R., 2018. Strategies to reduce groundwater Level decline (The Case Study of Lavar Plain in Hormozgan Province). Journal of Land Management,  5(2): 125-135 (in Persian).

 

9-    Nezamdost, M., 2016.  Water Crisis and Sustainable Management Solutions for Water Resources in the Agricultural Sector in the Mahvalat Plain.  Master's thesis for Geography and Rural Planning, Birjand University, 116 p

 

10- Shahid, S., and Hazarika, M.K.,,2009. Groundwater Drought in the Northwestern Districts of Bangladesh. Water Resource Management, 24: 1989-2006.

 

11- Velayati, V.,  2006 . Investigation of water crisis in Khorasan province. MJSP, 10(1): 231-234 (in Persian).

 

12-Zamani, T., Karimi, H., Tavakoli, M. and Alimoradi, S.,  2018.  Investigation the Factors Affecting the Groundwater Drawdown in Mehran Plain, Ilam. Journal of Hydrogeology, 2(2):17-28. (in Persian).