اثر افزایش دی‌اکسیدکربن و رژیم کم‌آبیاری بر صفات مورفولوژیک و فیزیولوژیک گیاه عدس رقم کیمیا

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته دکترای هواشناسی کشاورزی از دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد.

2 استاد گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 استاد گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد.

4 دانشیار گروه علوم باغبانی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد.

5 استاد گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه شیراز.

چکیده

افزایش غلظت دی‌اکسیدکربن اتمسفری اثر مستقیمی بر فعالیت‌های گیاهی دارد. از سوی دیگر این افزایش می‌تواند اثرات منفی کم آبیاری را تا اندازه‌ای جبران نماید. در این تحقیق به بررسی آثار افزایش غلظت دی‌اکسیدکربن از 400 به 800 و ppm1200 بر رشد و عملکرد گیاه عدس رقم کیمیا تحت چهار تیمار آبیاری (WR (کل نیاز آبی گیاه)، WR125درصد، WR75درصد و WR50درصد) تحت یک آزمایش بلوک کامل تصادفی پرداخته شد. نتایج حاصله نشان داد که افزایش غلظت دی‌اکسیدکربن، افزایش طول ساقه و در نتیجه افزایش جرم خشک ساقه را به همراه دارد. افزایش جرم خشک ریشه نیز از دیگر اثرات افزایش غلظت دی‌اکسیدکربن محیطی می‌باشد. افزایش غلظت دی‌اکسیدکربن افزایش تعداد غلاف‌ها و دانه‌ها در بوته را موجب می‌شود. همچنین جرم خشک 1000 دانه نیز افزایش می‌یابد. در نتیجه عملکرد دانه در هر بوته گیاه عدس افزایش می‌یابد، به‌نحوی که دو و سه برابر شدن غلظت دی‌اکسیدکربن موجب افزایش 17 و 32 درصدی عملکرد دانه می‌شود. از سوی دیگر افزایش غلظت دی‌اکسیدکربن موجب کاهش میزان تبخیر-تعرق می‌شود، لذا از نیاز آبی گیاه کاسته شده و در نتیجه از اثرات منفی کم آبیاری بر رشد و عملکرد گیاه می‌کاهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide and Deficit Irrigation Regimes on Morphological and Physiological Characteristics of Lentil (Variety Kimia)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shideh Shams 1
  • Mohammad Mousavi 2
  • Amin Ali Zadeh 3
  • Mahmood Shoor 4
  • Ali Akbar Kamgar-Haghighi 5
1 Graduated Ph.D. in Agrometeorology from Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
2 Professor in Meteorology, Water Engineering Department, College of Agric. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
3 Professor of Water Engineering Department, College of Agric. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
4 Associate Professor of Horticulture and Landscape Engineering Department, College of Agric. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
5 Professor of Water Engineering Department, College of Agric. Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Studies have shown that the global climate has been dramatically changed during last decades. The results of the investigations have shown that enhancement of greenhouse gases due to human activities is one of the main factors of climate change in the present century. CO2 is one of the most important greenhouse gases, which has begun to increase rapidly since the mid-19th century. Studies have shown that carbon dioxide concentrations have risen by about 43% from 277-280 ppm since the late 1700s and now the concentration of this gas is close to 400 ppm (Samenow, 2013). According to scientists, carbon dioxide is responsible for 61% of the total global warming.
In addition to the harmful effects of increasing the carbon dioxide concentration and global warming, this gas has a positive effect on agriculture, which increases its importance. The results of the research indicate that increasing CO2 concentration causes photosynthesis enhancement also by increasing the photosynthesis dry matter weight increase, and consequently the amount of production increases (Semenow et al., 2012‎).
Rogers et al., (1994), indicated that doubling carbon dioxide concentration has led to an increase in plants’ yield approximately by 33%. In addition, environmental conditions such as light, temperature, water and available nutrients, moisture, etc., and the interaction between them, overwhelms the effect of plants on changes in carbon dioxide concentration.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • CO2
  • Stem
  • Shoot
  • Root
  • Seeds Yields
  • Evapotranspiration
1-    Aranjuelo, I. Cabrerizo, P.M. Arrese-Igor, C. and Aparicio-Tejo, P.M. 2013. Pea plant responsiveness under elevated [CO2] is conditioned by the N source (N2 fixation versus NO3-fertilization). Environmental and Experimental Botany, 95, pp. 34– 40.
 
2-    Balouchi, H. R., Sanavy, S. M., Emam, Y., and Dolatabadian, A. 2009. UV radiation, elevated CO2 and water stress effect on growth and photosynthetic characteristics in durum wheat. Plant, Soil and Environment, 55(10), pp. 443-453
 
3-    Benlloch-Gonzalez, M. Bochicchio, R. Berger, J. Bramley, H. and Palta, J.A. 2014. High temperature reduces the positive effect of elevated CO2 on wheat root system growth. Field Crops Research, 165, pp. 71–79.
 
4-    Diaz, S. 1996. Effects of elevated [CO2] at the community level mediated by root symbionts. Plant and Soil, 187, pp. 309-320.
 
5-    Gesch, R.W. Vu, J.C.V. Allen, L.H. and Boote, K.J. 2001. Photosynthetic responses of rice and soybean to elevated CO2 and temperature. Recent Research Developments in Plant Physiology, 2, pp. 125-137.
 
6-    Ghosh, P.K. Jayas, D.S. Srivastava, C. and Jha, A.N. 2007. Drying and Storing Lentils: Engineering and Entomological Aspects. In: Lentil, An Ancient crop for modern time. Springer Netherlands.
 
7-    Heinemann, A.B. Maia, H.N. Dourado-Neto, D. Ingram, K.T. and Hoogenboom, G. 2006. Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] growth and development response to CO2 enrichment under different temperature regimes. European Journal of Agronomy, 24, pp. 52–61.
 
 
8-    Högy, P. Brunnbauer, M. Koehler P. Schwadorf, K. Breuer, J. Franzaring J. Zhunusbayeva D. and Fangmeier, A. 2013. Grain quality characteristics of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) as affected by free-air CO2 enrichment. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 88, pp. 11–18.
 
9-    Högy, P. Wieser, H. Köhler, P. Schwadorf, K. Breuer, J. Franzaring, J. Muntifering, R. and Fangmeier, A. 2009. Effects of elevated CO2 on grain yield and quality of wheat: results from a three-year FACE experiment. Plant Biology, 11(1), pp. 60–69.
 
10- IPCC. 2007. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Summary for Policymakers. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the University Press. New York, USA. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge.
 
11- Kimball, B.A. Kobayashi, K. and Bindi, M. 2002. Responses of agricultural crops to free-air CO2 enrichment. Advances in Agronomy, 70, pp. 293–368.
 
12- Li, D. Liu, H. Qiao, Y. Wang, Y. Cai, Zh. Dong, D. Shi, Ch. Liu, Y. Li, X. and M. Liu. 2013. Effects of elevated CO2 on growth, seed yield, and water use efficiency of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) under drought stress. Agricultural Water Management, 129, pp. 105-112.
 
13- Madhu, M. and J.L. Hatfield. 2013. Dynamics of Plant Root Growth under Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. Agronomy Journal, 105(3), pp. 657-669.
 
14- Medlyn, B.E. Barton, C.V.M. Broadmeadow, M.S.J. Ceulemans, R. De Angelis, P. Forstreuter, M. Freeman, M. Jackson, S.B. Kellomäki, S. Laitat, E. Rey, A. Roberntz, P. Sigurdsson, B.D. Strassemeyer, J. Wang, K. Curtis, P.S. and Jarvis, P.G. 2001. Stomatal conductance of forest species after long-term exposure to elevated CO2 concentration: a synthesis. New Phytologist, 149, pp. 247–264.
 
15- Mereu, V. Cesaraccio, C. Dubrovsky, M. Spano, D. Carboni, G. and Duce, P. 2010. Climate change impacts on durum wheat in Sardinia. In 29th Conference on Agricultural and Forest Meteorology,University of Kansas, Kansas City, U.S.A.
 
16- Mitchell, R. Mitchell, V. Driscoll, S. Franklin, J. and Lawlor, D. 2006. Effects of increased CO2 concentration and temperature on growth and yield of winter wheat at two levels of nitrogen application. Plant Cell and Environment, 16, pp. 521–529.
 
17- Nasser, R.R. Fuller, M.P. and Jellings, A.J. 2007. Effect of elevated CO2 and nitrogen levels on lentil growth and nodulation. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 28, pp. 1-6.
 
18- Pacholski, A. Manderscheid, R. and Weigel, H.J. 2015. Effects of free air CO2 enrichment on root growth of barley, sugar beet and wheat grown in a rotation under different nitrogen supply. European Journal of Agronomy. 63, pp. 36–46.
 
19- Pal, M. Karthikeyapandian, V. Jain, V. Srivastava, A.C. Raj, A. and Sengupta, U.K. 2004. Biomass production and nutritional levels of berseem (Trifolium alexandrium) grown under elevated CO2. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 101, pp. 31-38.
 
20- Rogers, H.H. Runion G.B. and Krupa, S.V. 1994. Plant responses to atmospheric CO2 enrichment with emphasis on root and rhizosphere. Environmental Pollution, 83, pp. 155-189.
 
21- Saha, S. Sehgal, S.K. Nagarajan, Sh. and Pal, M. 2012. Impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 on radiation utilization and related plant biophysical properties in pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.). Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 158–159, pp 63–70.
 
22- Samenow, J. 2013. Atmospheric carbon dioxide reaches 400 part per million concentration milestone. Available in 11/15/2013 http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/capital-weather-gang/wp/2013/05/10/atmospheric-carbon-dioxide-concentration-400-parts-per-million
 
 
23- Semenov, M.A., Mitchell, R.A., Whitmore, A.P., Hawkesford, M.J., Parry, M.A., and Shewry, P.R. 2012. Shortcomings in wheat yield predictions. Nature Climate Change, 2(6), pp. 380-382.
 
24- Shams Sh, Nazemosadat S, Kamgar Haghighi A, Zand Parsa S. 2012. Effect of carbon dioxide concentration and irrigation level on evapotranspiration and yield of red bean. Journal of Science and Technology of Greenhouse Culture, 2(4), pp.1-10. (In Persian)
 
25- Shams, Sh., Mousavi Baygi, M., Alizadeh, A., Shoor, M. and Kamgar-Haghighi, A.A. 2015. The effects of different concentrations of carbon dioxide and irrigation regimes on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of lentil (variety Bileh-savar). Journal of Agricultural Meteorology, 3(2), pp. 55-67. (In Persian)
 
26- Srinivasarao, C., Kundu, S., Shanker, A.K., Naik, R.P., Vanaja, M., Venkanna, K., Sankar, M., and Naresh, K. 2016. Continuous cropping under elevated CO2: Differential effects on C4 and C3 crops, soil properties and carbon dynamics in semi-arid alfisols. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 218, pp. 73-86.
 
27- Torbert, H.A. Prior, S.A. Rogers, H.H. and G.B. Runion. 2004. Elevated atmospheric CO2 effects on N fertilization in grain sorghum and soybean. Field Crop Research, 88, pp. 57-67.
 
28- Vanaja, M. Raghuram Reddy, P. Jyothi Lakshmi, M. Maheswari, M. Vagheera, P. and Ratnakumar, P. 2007. Effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations on growth and yield of black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) – A rainfed pulse crop. Plant Soil Environment, 53(2), pp. 81–88.