مقایسه حجم آب مصرفی و بهره وری آب گندم در روش های مختلف آبیاری در شهرستان بهبهان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اهواز، ایران

2 استادیار پژوهش، موسسه تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران.

3 استاد پژوهش، موسسه تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران.

چکیده

تخمین نسبتاً دقیق مقدار آب مصرفی، راندمان آبیاری و بهره­وری آب محصولات زراعی در کشور از مهم­ترین شاخص‌های کلیدی در برنامه‌ریزی‌های بخش کشاورزی است. هدف اصلی از  نوشتار حاضر، بررسی نتایج اندازه­گیری‌های انجام شده میدانی آب مصرفی و عملکرد گندم در شهرستان بهبهان در روش­های مختلف آبیاری در طول یک فصل زراعی (1396-1395) و همچنین تعیین بهره­وری آب مصرفی گندم در 32 مزرعه تحت مدیریت کشاورزان است. مقادیر اندازه­گیری شده با مقادیر برآورد شده نیاز آبی خالص به روش پنمن- مانتیث (نیاز آبی به­روز شده) و سند ملی مقایسه گردید. تعداد 15 مزرعه به روش سطحی، ده مزرعه به روش بارانی و هفت مزرعه به روش قطره­ای آبیاری ­می‌شدند. عملکرد گندم در تمام مزارع اندازه­گیری شده بین  2000 تا 6854 کیلوگرم در هکتار بود. بیش­ترین بهره­وری آب گندم در مزرعه­ای با سامانه قطره­ای به میزان 79/2 کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب محاسبه شد. راندمان کاربرد در مزارع مورد نظر بین 7/22 تا 7/99 درصد بود. نیاز آبی بر اساس سند به­روز شده در مزارع از 4/373 تا 0/517 میلی­متر  ثبت شد. مقایسه میانگین نتایج در آزمون تی نشان داد که سامانه قطره­ای با بهره­وری آب 51/1 کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب، دارای بیش­ترین بهره­وری بوده و اختلاف معنی­داری با دو سامانه بارانی و سطحی دارد که به­ترتیب دارای بهره­وری آب معادل 90/0 و 88/0 کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب بودند. محاسبه ضرایب همبستگی نشان داد که روند تغییرات حجم آب مصرفی با روند تغییرات شاخص راندمان کاربرد و بهره­وری آب روندی غیرهمراستا و معنی­دار در سطح یک درصد را نشان می­دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determination of Water Consumption and Productivity of Wheat in Different Irrigation Systems in Behbahan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nader Salamati 1
  • Javad Baghani 2
  • Fariborz Abbasi 3
1 Research Assistant Professor of Agricultural Engineering Research Department, Khuzestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Ahvaz, Iran.
2 Research Assistant Professor, Agricultural Engineering Research Institute (AERI), Agricultural Research Education, and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.
3 Professor of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Agricultural Engineering Research Institute (AERI), Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Precise estimation of the amount of water consumed, irrigation efficiency and water productivity of crops are the most important key indicators in agricultural sector planning of Iran. The figures given for the volume of water used in the agricultural sector are very different and there are serious doubts as to their accuracy. The average of water use efficiency in the country is 1.32 kg/m3 and its annual growth in the last 11 years has been reported to be 0.041 kg/m3 (Abbasi et al., 2017). Therefore, it is necessary to carry out an exploratory work that can be used to quantify the volume of water consumed by various products. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to measure water consumption of wheat directly and to compare wheat water productivity in different irrigation systems under farmers management in Behbahan.
 
Methodology
The volume of application water for wheat in different farms during one season (2016-2017) was measured and compared. The measured values were compared with the crop water requirement estimated by the Penman-Monteith and the national document. To determine the volume of water consumed, firstly, the flow rate of the selected water sources was measured, with the appropriate devices (flumes, meter and micro molina). Farm information including cultivated area,  soil texture, soil electrical conductivity, electrical conductivity of the irrigation water used, and farm location with GPS were recorded. Other field information such as irrigation method, irrigation water sources (surface, underground), type of irrigation network (modern, traditional) were also recorded. Effective rainfall was calculated by the SCS method. Crop water requirement using the Penman-Monteith method was determined from data of current year and 10-year data for Behbahan city from the nearest meteorological station.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Irrigation systems
  • Water requirement
  • Irrigation application efficiency
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