عنوان مقاله [English]
Water is one of the sources that play an essential role in crop production and, if not properly managed, creates a severe limitation on drinking water consumption and agriculture. Water scarcity has become a crisis in recent years. It has challenged rice production in the country, so there is no choice but to increase productivity and optimize low-quality water. The use of effluent in supplying part or all of the water and nutrient needs of the crop, in addition to reducing the pressure on available water resources, also lowers production costs. It also avoids the problems of disposal of natural resources and environmental issues. Wastewater application can increase the amount of water available to the plant by changing the physical properties of the soil. Therefore, overall, these factors contribute to the sustainable use of water and soil resources in agriculture (Nikbakht & Rezaei, 2016). Direct and unmanaged use of this type of water, referred to as abnormal water, causes soil damage and reduces crop production in irrigation operations. Due to the importance of water and its scarcity in the country, proper use of water resources and irrigation water is one of the most critical goals in the agricultural sector. Therefore, a method that can increase the plant's yield under normal conditions by using a certain amount of water and the use of irrigation water in such a way that no problems occur for the plant can be used as a solution. It is essential to manage irrigation water use. In this regard, one of the approaches used in irrigation operations in recent years to use unusual waters is to pass irrigation water through a magnetic field. Water is a magnetic magnet that passes through a device with a magnetic core (Bodnarenko & Gac, 1984). Special measures, including unconventional water, are required to provide irrigation water for strategic products such as rice, which needs much water. Despite the beneficial aspects of urban wastewater, using these waters without proper management in agriculture leads to irreparable damage in a long time. To reduce its effects and the use of wastewater treatment systems, the magnetization method is considered. In the present study, the effect of magnetization of Gorgan urban wastewater effluent on hulls yield, biological yield, harvest index, water use efficiency, physical efficiency of water, and economic efficiency of water have been investigated.