عنوان مقاله [English]
The current study investigated the longitudinal flow velocity profile upstream of an orifice for different water depths using the FLOW-3D model. Experimental design was used along with LES, Laminar, and turbulence models to calibrate the model. The obtained results indicated that turbulence models had almost high and equal accuracy for predicting longitudinal velocity profiles. For various depths upstream of the orifice, the general form of the longitudinal velocity profile followed an exponential function with high accuracy. Moreover, at larger-distance upstream of the orifice, the transverse velocity profile became uniform. Eventually, it was found that with the rise in the depth upstream of the orifice by eight times, the shear stress created on the bed increased by 148%.