Predicting Biomass and Grain Yield in Canola Under Different Water Regimes and Fertilizers Using AquaCrop Model

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Professor Department of Water Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan branch Lahijan, Iran

2 2- Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Water Engineering, Urmia University, Iran.

3 Professor Department of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Takestan branch, Takestan, Iran.

4 P.H.D Department of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Takestan branch, , Takestan, Iran.


The AquaCrop model improves farm management practices, including plant density, planting time, and chemical fertilizers. It also simulates crop yield, soil water content, soil salinity, and water productivity. One of the applications of this model is the assessment of rainfed production during the long term, the effect of low fertilization, the productivity of real water on the farm, and the analysis of future climate scenarios. The disadvantages of this model include the lack of calibration of the amount and time of fertilization and the lack of consideration of plant diseases and weeds (Raes et al., 2009). The AquaCrop model is suitable for simulating different water and nitrogen managements on yield (Khoshravesh et al., 2012). Ebrahimi, Rezaverdinejad and Majnooni Heris (2015) evaluated the AquaCrop model under different irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer managements for estimating maize grain yield and biomass in Shiraz. This model predicted the grain yield of maize with high precision and biomass obtained in all treatments was more than the estimated values. Alishiri, Paknejad and Aghayari (2014) in simulating sugarbeet growth under different irrigation regimes and nitrogen fertilizer concluded that the highest error in performance simulation was in the treatment that had the highest fertilizer stress. The purpose of this study was to calibrate and validate the AquaCrop model for estimating the crop grain yield (GY) and biomass (B) of Canola under different irrigation regimes and pure nitrogen fertilizer levels in loamy soils in Gazvin, Iran, for two years.


Main Subjects

- Abedinpour, M., Sarangi, A., Rajput, T.B.S., Singh, M., Pathak, H. and Ahmad, T., 2012. Performance evaluation of AquaCrop model for maize crop in a semi-arid environment. Agricultural Water Management, 110, pp.55-66.
2- Alishiri, R., Paknejad, F. and Aghayari, F., 2014. Simulation of sugarbeet growth under different water regimes and nitrogen levels by AquaCrop. Intl J Biosci, 4(4), pp.1-9.
3- Allen, R.G., Pereira, L.S., Raes, D. and Smith, M., 1998. Crop evapotranspiration-Guidelines for computing crop water requirements-FAO Irrigation and drainage paper 56. FAO, Rome, 300(9), p.D05109.
4- Amiri, E., Bahrani, A., Khorsand, A. and Haghjoo, M., 2015. Evaluating AquaCrop Model Performance to Predict Grain Yield and Wheat Biomass, Under Water Stress. Water and Soil Science, 25(4/2), pp.217-229. (In Persian).
5- Andarzian, B., Bannayan, M., Steduto, P., Mazraeh, H., Barati, M.E., Barati, M.A. and Rahnama, A., 2011. Validation and testing of the AquaCrop model under full and deficit irrigated wheat production in Iran. Agricultural Water Management, 100(1), pp.1-8.
6- Araya, A., Habtu, S., Hadgu, K.M., Kebede, A. and Dejene, T., 2010. Test of AquaCrop model in simulating biomass and yield of water deficient and irrigated barley (Hordeum vulgare). Agricultural Water Management, 97(11), pp.1838-1846.
7- Araya, A., Keesstra, S.D. and Stroosnijder, L., 2010. Simulating yield response to water of Teff (Eragrostis tef) with FAO's AquaCrop model. Field Crops Research, 116(1-2), pp.196-204.
8- Arvaneh, H. and Abbasi, F., 2014. Calibration and Validation of the AquaCrop model for Canola in the Field. Iranian Journal of Water Research, 8(14), pp.9-17. (In Persian).
9- Brandyle, T., Szaty, L., Gnatow, S. and Tomasz. O., 2005. Examination of SWAP suitability to predict soil water conditions in a field Peat-Moorsh soil. Department of environmental improvement, Warsaw Agricultural University, Poland.
10- Doosti Rezaee, M., Besharat, S., Rezaee, H., Verdinejad, V.R. and Ahmad Ali, J., 2013. Evaluation of AquaCrop model on grain yield of Corn. In 2th International Conference on Plant, Water, Soil and Weather Modeling, Kerman, Iran. (In Persian).
11- Earl, H.J. and Davis, R.F., 2003. Effect of drought stress on leaf and whole canopy radiation use efficiency and yield of maize. Agronomy journal, 95(3), pp.688-696.
12- Ebrahimi, M., Rezaverdinejad, V. and Majnooni Heris, A., 2015. Simulation of Maize Growth under Different Management of Water and Nitrogen Fertilizer by AquaCrop Model. Iranian Journal of Soil and Water Research (IJSWR), 46(2), pp.207-220. (In Persian).
13- Eitzinger, J., Trnka, M., Hösch, J., ┼Żalud, Z. and Dubrovský, M., 2004. Comparison of CERES, WOFOST and SWAP models in simulating soil water content during growing season under different soil conditions. Ecological Modelling, 171(3), pp.223-246.
14- Erkossa, T., Awulachew, S.B. and Aster, D., 2011. Soil fertility effect on water productivity of maize in the upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. Agricultural Sciences, 2(03), p.238.
15- Gheysari, M., Mirlatifi, S.M., Bannayan, M., Homaee, M. and Hoogenboom, G., 2009. Interaction of water and nitrogen on maize grown for silage. Agricultural water management, 96(5), pp.809-821.
16- Heng, L.K., Evett, S.R., Howell, T.A. and Hsiao, T.C., 2009. Calibration and testing of FAO AquaCrop model for maize in several locations. Agron. J, 101, pp.488-498.
17- Hsiao, T.C., Heng, L., Steduto, P., Rojas-Lara, B., Raes, D. and Fereres, E., 2009. AquaCrop—the FAO crop model to simulate yield response to water: III. Parameterization and testing for maize. Agronomy Journal, 101(3), pp.448-459.
18- Iqbal, M.A., Shen, Y., Stricevic, R., Pei, H., Sun, H., Amiri, E., Penas, A. and Del Rio, S., 2014. Evaluation of the FAO AquaCrop model for winter wheat on the North China Plain under deficit irrigation from field experiment to regional yield simulation. Agricultural Water Management, 135, pp.61-72.
19- Khorsand, A., 2014. Comparison and Performance Evaluation of Aquacrop and SWAP Models under Salt and Water Stresses conditions (Case Study Winter Wheat). MSc Thesis, Urmia Uuniversity. (In Persian).
20- Khorsand, A., Rezaverdinejad, V. and Shahidi, A., 2014. Performance Evaluation of AquaCrop Model to Predict Yield Production of Wheat, Soil Water and Solute Transport under Water and Salinity Stresses. Water and irrigation management, 4(1), pp.89-104. (In Persian).
21- Khoshravesh, M., Mostafazadeh-Fard, B., Heidarpour, M. and Kiani, A.R., 2012. AquaCrop model simulation under different irrigation water and nitrogen strategies. Water Science and Technology, 67(1), pp.232-238.
22- Kim, D. and Kaluarachchi, J., 2015. Validating FAO AquaCrop using Landsat images and regional crop information. Agricultural Water Management, 149, pp.143-155.
23- Moriasi, D.N., Arnold, J.G., Van Liew, M.W., Bingner, R.L., Harmel, R.D. and Veith, T.L., 2007. Model evaluation guidelines for systematic quantification of accuracy in watershed simulations. Transactions of the ASABE, 50(3), pp.885-900.
24- Muchow, R.C., Sinclair, T.R. and Bennett, J.M., 1990. Temperature and solar radiation effects on potential maize yield across locations. Agronomy journal, 82(2), pp.338-343.
25- Nyakudya, I.W. and Stroosnijder, L., 2014. Effect of rooting depth, plant density and planting date on maize (Zea mays L.) yield and water use efficiency in semi-arid Zimbabwe: Modelling with AquaCrop. Agricultural Water Management, 146, pp.280-296.
26- Osmani, H., Motamed Vaziri, B. and Moeini. A., 2013. Flow simulation, calibration and validations SWAT model (case study of upstream the Latyan dam). J. watershed engineering and management, 5, pp.134-143.
27- Raes, D., Steduto, P., Hsiao, T.C. and Fereres. E., 2009. Reference manual AquaCrop. FAO, Land and Water Division, Rome, Italy.
28- Singh, R., 2004. Simulations on direct and cyclic use of saline waters for sustaining cotton–wheat in a semi-arid area of north-west India. Agricultural Water Management, 66(2), pp.153-162.
29- Singh, A.K., Tripathy, R. and Chopra, U.K., 2008. Evaluation of CERES-Wheat and CropSyst models for water–nitrogen interactions in wheat crop. Agricultural water management, 95(7), pp.776-786.
30- Steduto, P., Hsiao, T.C., Raes, D. and Fereres, E., 2009. AquaCrop—the FAO crop model to simulate yield response to water: I. Concepts and underlying principles. Agronomy Journal, 101(3), pp.426-437.
31- Tavakoli, A.R., Liaghat, A. and Alizadeh, A., 2013. Soil Water Balance, Sowing Date and Wheat Yield Using AquaCrop Model under Rainfed and Limited Irrigation. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 14(4), pp.41-56. (In Persian).
32- Willmott, C.J., 1982. Some comments on the evaluation of model performance. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 63(11), pp.1309-1313.
33- Zeleke, K.T., Luckett, D. and Cowley, R., 2011. Calibration and testing of the FAO AquaCrop model for canola. Agronomy Journal, 103(6), pp.1610-1618.
34- Zhang, W., Liu, W., Xue, Q., Chen, J. and Han, X., 2013. Evaluation of the AquaCrop model for simulating yield response of winter wheat to water on the southern Loess Plateau of China. Water Science and Technology, 68(4), pp.821-828.
Volume 41, Issue 1
May 2018
Pages 57-72
  • Receive Date: 09 July 2016
  • Revise Date: 26 September 2016
  • Accept Date: 10 October 2016
  • First Publish Date: 21 April 2018