Investigating the Effect of Circular Bridge Piers on Local Scouring at 60° Channel Junctions Using SSIIM1 3D Numerical Model

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate professor, Department of Water Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah

2 M.Sc. of Irrigation and Drainage, Department of Water Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah.

3 M.Sc. of Hydraulic Structures, Department of Water Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah.


Insertion of different water structures such as bridge piers in the flow path contracts the flow cross section and causes backwater at upstream sections. The velocity and turbulence of flow increases around these structures and bed scouring will occur. To discover the effect of different structures in the vicinity of channel junctions on flow and sediment patterns, precise studies should be conducted. The effects of bridge pier on flow and sediment patterns in stright and curve open channels have been investigated (Salaheldin et al., 2004, Tabib zadeh et al., 2005). However, its effect on flow and sediment patterns at open channel confluences has rarely been studied.


1-       Biron, P.M., Ramamurthy, A.S. and Han, S., 2004. Three-dimensional numerical modeling of mixing at river confluences. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 130(3), pp. 243-253.
2-       Dey, S., Raikar, R.V. and Roy, A., 2008. Scour at submerged cylindrical obstacles under steady flow. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering134(1), pp.105-109.
3-       Esmaeili, T., Kharaghnis, S. and Dehghani, A., 2009. Three-dimensional  numerical study of scouring around bridge pier under unsteady flow. Journal of Water Sciences Research, 1(1), pp.19-28 (In Persian).
4-       Froehlich, D.C., 1988. Analysis of onsite measurements of scour at piers. In Hydraulic engineering: proceedings of the 1988 national conference on hydraulic engineering, pp. 534-539.
5-       Ghobadian, R., 2007. Investigation of flow, scouring and sedimentation at river-channel confluences (Doctoral dissertation, Ph. D. Thesis, Department of Hydraulic Structures, Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz, Iran).
6-       Ghobadian, R., Basiri, M. and Seydi Tabar, Z., 2014. The effect of circular bridge pier location on flow characteristics at 90 degree channel junction. 9th Symposium on Advances in Science & Technology, Mashhad, Iran (In Persian).
7-       Guemou, B., Seddini, A. and Ghenim, A., 2013. Numerical Investigations of the Bridge Pier Shape Influence on the Bed Shear Stress. Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering18, pp.5685-5698.
8-       Hassanzadeh, Y., Hakimzadeh, H. and Ayari, S.,  2011. Study the effects of bridge pier shape on the flow pattern using the Fluent software. Iran-Water Resources Research 7(4), pp. 95-105 (In Persian).
9-       Heron, K.M.M., 2007. Vortex shedding on bridge piers. Thesis of Bachelor of Science, University of Southern Queensland.
10-   Homayoon, R., 2009. Effect of pier shape on scouring around bridge pier. National Conference on of Water Crisis Management, Marvdasht, Iran (In Persian).
11-   Laursen, E.M. and Toch, A., 1956. Scour around bridge piers and abutments (Vol. 4). Ames, IA: Iowa Highway Research Board.
12-   Laursen, E.M., 1962. Scour at bridge crossings. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers127(1), pp.166-179. Laursen, E.M. 1962. Scour at bridge crossings. Transation ASCE 127:166-180.
13-   Liu, H.K., Chang, F.M. and Skinner, M.M., 1961. Effect of bridge constriction on scour and backwater. Report No. CER60-HKL22, Department of Civil Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.
14-   Park, H., Jang, D. and Choi, G., 2014. A study on the flow characteristics influenced by hydraulic structure at a channel junction, 11th International Conference on Hydroinformatics, New York City, USA.
15-   Rouse, H., 1973. Modern conceptions of the mechanics of fluid turbulence. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 102(1), pp. 463–543.
16-   Richardson, E.V., Karaki, S., Mahmood, K., Simons, D.B. and Stevens, M.A., 1975.  Highways in the River Environment, Hydraulic and Environmental Design Considerations.. TRAINING AND DESIGN MANUAL (No. FHWA-NHI-76-N005).
17-   Richardson, E.V., 1975. Highways in the River Environment, Hydraulic and Environmental Design Considerations.
18-  Salaheldin, T.M., Imran, J. and Chaudhry, M.H., 2004. Numerical modeling of three-dimensional flow field around circular piers. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering130(2), pp.91-100.
19-   Saneie, M. and Mohamadnejad, A.M., 2012. The effect of diameter of cylindrical pier on bridge pier scouring, Retrofitting and Rehabilitation Ind. 22, pp. 11-17 (In Persian).
20-   Tabibzadeh, M., Dehghani, A., Khanjani, M.J. and  Salehineyshabouri, A.A., 2005. Numerical simulation of scouring around circular bridge piers, 5th Iranian Hydraulic Conference, Kerman, Iran (In Persian).
21-   Rijn, L.C.V., 1984. Sediment transport, part II: suspended load transport. Journal of hydraulic engineering110(11), pp.1613-1641..
22-   Weerakoon, S.B., Kawahara, Y. and Tamai, N., 1991. Three-dimensional flow structure in channel confluences of rectangular section, paper presented at the 24th Congress of the IAHR. Int. Assoc. for Hydraul. Res., Madrid, Spain, pp. 373–380.
23-   Yarnell, D.L., 1934. Bridge piers as channel obstructions (No. 442). US Dept. of Agriculture.
Volume 41, Issue 1
May 2018
Pages 147-163
  • Receive Date: 07 November 2015
  • Revise Date: 07 May 2018
  • Accept Date: 04 December 2016
  • First Publish Date: 21 April 2018