The Quality Study and Simulation by Qual2k Model in Dez River, Iran

Document Type : Research Paper


1 کیان آباد خیابان 17 شرقی پلاک 5

2 Professor, Department of Water Sciences and Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Executive Director of Water Resources Division, Khuzestan Water and Power Authority, Ahwaz, Iran

4 Associate Professor, Department of Water Sciences and Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.


According to the standard of Krenkel and Novotny (1980), the proposed concentrations of different water quality variables are categorized into four different groups. In this category, group 1 (A1, B1) represents a water quality which is suitable for all general applications. Group 4 is the worst water quality which is inappropriate for most applications. Moravej et al. (2017) investigated the water quality of the Karun River using the water quality index and GIS (Geographic Information system) time series modeling during 2007-2012. The results showed that the water quality index decreases (at the point where it joins the Dez River) meaning that lower quality of the river water is due to pollutants entering into the river at the downstream of the Dezful station. So, it is necessary to have control measures in this river. Recently, IRWQISC indicator has been presented by researchers of the Iranian Environmental Protection Agency. Hamedi et al. (2015) used the IRWQISC indicator to determine the changes in river flow volume due to seasonal variation. In addition, Azami et al., (2015) reviewed changes of the IRWQISC indicator for Tjan River. Bagherian Marzouni et al. (2014) conducted “DO” and “BOD” parameters in the Karun River with Q2k model. The results showed that by changing the entry points of the pollutants into the river (especially in low-flow condition) we will achieve the environmental goals for the river water. Nakhaei and Shahidi (2010), using the Qual2k model, showed that the water quality at the downstream of the Zayandehrood River is very poor due to the input of industrial pollutants. Rafiee et al. (2013) simulated the sources of pollutants input into the Gargar River in Khuzestan province, by Qual2k model. The results showed that the Qual2k model is sensitive to inflow and input pollutants such as BOD and Nitrate (NO3-N).In this study, the qualitative changes of the Dez River have been investigated using the Kerincell Standard and IRWQISC indicator in recent years. Then, the qualitative status of the river was simulated by Qual2k model. This model was calibrated and verified to forecast the water quality of the Dez River in the future.


Main Subjects

1-       Aazami, J., Esmaili-Sari, A., Abdoli, A., Sohrabi, H. and Van den Brink, P.J., 2015. Monitoring and assessment of water health quality in the Tajan River, Iran using Physicochemical, fish and macro invertebrate’s indices. Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, 56(1), pp. 260–269.
2-       Anonymous, 2015 a. Data bank of the preliminary studies and comprehensive hydro projects division, Khuzestan water and power authority co, Ministry of energy, Iran.
3-       Anonymous, 2015 b. Data bank of water resources conversation and exploitation division, Khuzestan water and power authority (Kwpa) co, Ministry of energy, Iran. .
4-       Anonymous, 2014. Irrigation and drainage networks in North of Khozestan., The monthly water balance reports.  Irrigation Company of the north of Dezful, Khozestan, Iran.
5-       Anonymous, 2007. Operating procedure, sediment oxygen demand. U.S. Environmental protection agency (USEPA), Region 4 science and ecosystem support division (SESD), Ecological assessment Branch, Athens, GA.
6-       Anonymous, 2011. Report of cross section operation of the Karoun and Dez rivers, 2011(c). Sediment center, preliminary studies and comprehensive hydro projects division, Khuzestan water and power authority co, Ministry of energy, Iran.
7-      Bagherian Marzouni, M., Akhoundali, A.M., Moazed. H., Jaafarzadeh, N.A., Ahadian, J. and Hasoonizadeh, H., 2014. Evaluation of Karun river water quality scenarios using simulation model results. International Journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research, 2(2), pp. 339-358.
8-       Bottino, F., Ferraz, I.C., Mendiondo, E.M. and Calijuri, M.C., 2010. Calibration of Qual2k model in Brazilian micro watershed: effects of the land use on water quality. Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia, 22(4), pp 474-458.
9-       Camargo, R.A., Calijuri, M.L., Santiago, A.F., Couto, E.A. and Silva, M.D.F.M., 2010. Water quality prediction using the QUAL2Kw model in a small karstic watershed in Brazil. Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia. 22(4), pp. 486 -498.
10-   Chapra, S.C. and Pelletier, G.J., 2003. Qual2k: A modeling framework for simulating river and stream water quality documentation and user manual, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department., Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA.
11-   Hamedi, H., Mobarghai, N., Soufizadeh, S. and Rasouli, S.A., 2015. Survey of qualitative conditions and seasonal variation of the urban watercourses pollutants. Journal of Material and Environmental Science, 6 (2), pp. 322-332.
12-   Kannel, P.R., Lee, S., Kanel, S.R., Lee, Y.S. and Ahn, K.H., 2007. Application of Qual2kw for water quality modeling and dissolved oxygen control in the river Bagmati. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 125 (1), pp. 201–217.
13-   Krenkel, P.A. and Novotny, V., 1980. Water quality management. Academic press, New York, NY 10003.
14-   Moravej, M., Maryami rad, I. and Ibrahimi, K., 2016. Evaluating the Karoun river quality status based on water quality index using the GIS. Ecohydrology, 4 (1), pp. 225-235. (In Persian).
15-   Moriasi, D.N., Arnold, J.G., Van Liew, M.W., Bingner, R.L., Harmel, R.D. and Veith, T.L., 2007. Model evaluation guidelines for systematic quantification of accuracy in watershed simulations. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, 50(3), pp. 885-900.
16-   Najafzadeh, M. and Barani, Gh.A. 2011. Comparison of group method of data handling based genetic programming and back propagation systems to predict scour depth around bridge piers. Scientia Iranica, 18(6), pp. 1207–1213.
17-   Nakhaei, N. and Shahidi, A.E., 2010. Wastewater discharge impact modeling with Qual2k, case study: the Zayandeh-rood River. International Environmental Modeling and Software Society (IEMSs), Ottawa, Canada.
18-   Rafiee, M., Akhond Ali, A.M., Moazed, H., Lyon, WS, Jaafar zadeh, N. and Zahraie, B., 2013. A case Study of water quality modeling of the Gargar River, Iran. Journal of Hydraulic Structures (ISC), 1(2), pp. 10-22.
19-   Rasti, M., Nabavi, S.M. and Jaafar zadeh, N., 2007. Investigation of fish farm wastewater on Gargar River using algae as biologic indicator, In 7th International River Engineering Conference (IREC), Shaid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran. (In Persian).
20-   Tsivoglou, E. C., Neal, L. A., 1976, Tracer measurement of reaeration. III. Predicting the reaeration capacity of inland streams, J. Water Pollution Control Federation, vol 48, Issue 12, pp 2669–2689.
21-   Zhang, R., Qian, X., Li, H., Yuan, X. and Rui, Y., 2012. Selection of optimal river water quality improvement programs using Qual2k: A case study of Taihu lake basin, China. Science of the Total Environment. 431, pp. 278-285.
Volume 43, Issue 3
October 2020
Pages 71-85
  • Receive Date: 14 April 2018
  • Revise Date: 01 September 2018
  • Accept Date: 11 September 2018
  • First Publish Date: 22 September 2020