Determination of Water Consumption and Productivity of Wheat in Different Irrigation Systems in Behbahan

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Research Assistant Professor of Agricultural Engineering Research Department, Khuzestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Ahvaz, Iran.

2 Research Assistant Professor, Agricultural Engineering Research Institute (AERI), Agricultural Research Education, and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.

3 Professor of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Agricultural Engineering Research Institute (AERI), Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.


Precise estimation of the amount of water consumed, irrigation efficiency and water productivity of crops are the most important key indicators in agricultural sector planning of Iran. The figures given for the volume of water used in the agricultural sector are very different and there are serious doubts as to their accuracy. The average of water use efficiency in the country is 1.32 kg/m3 and its annual growth in the last 11 years has been reported to be 0.041 kg/m3 (Abbasi et al., 2017). Therefore, it is necessary to carry out an exploratory work that can be used to quantify the volume of water consumed by various products. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to measure water consumption of wheat directly and to compare wheat water productivity in different irrigation systems under farmers management in Behbahan.
The volume of application water for wheat in different farms during one season (2016-2017) was measured and compared. The measured values were compared with the crop water requirement estimated by the Penman-Monteith and the national document. To determine the volume of water consumed, firstly, the flow rate of the selected water sources was measured, with the appropriate devices (flumes, meter and micro molina). Farm information including cultivated area,  soil texture, soil electrical conductivity, electrical conductivity of the irrigation water used, and farm location with GPS were recorded. Other field information such as irrigation method, irrigation water sources (surface, underground), type of irrigation network (modern, traditional) were also recorded. Effective rainfall was calculated by the SCS method. Crop water requirement using the Penman-Monteith method was determined from data of current year and 10-year data for Behbahan city from the nearest meteorological station.


Main Subjects

1-    Abbasi, F., Abbasi, N. and Tavakoli, A.R., 2017a. Agricultural water productivity: Chalenges and visions. Water and Sustainable Development, 4(1) , pp. 141-144.
2-    Abbasi, F., Sohrab, F. and Abbasi, N., 2017b. Evaluation of irrigation efficiencies in Iran. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering Research, 17 (67), pp. 113-128. (In Persian).
3-    Ahmad, M. D., Masih, I. and Turral, H., 2004. Diagnostic  analysis of spatial and temporal variations in crop water productivity: A field scale analysis of the ricewheat cropping system of Punjab, Pakistan. Applied Irrigation Science, 39(1), pp.  43-63.
4-    Asadi, H., Neyshabouri, M. and Seyadat, H., 2001. The effect of water stress at different stages of growth on yield, yield components and some water relations of wheat. Proceedings of the 7th Iranian Soil Science Congress, Shahrekord.(In Persian).
5-    Faramarzi, M., Yang, H., Schulin, R. and Abbaspour, K., 2010. Modeling wheat yield and crop water productivity in Iran: Implications of agricultural water management for wheat production. Agricultural Water Management, 97(11), pp.  1861-1875.
6-    Ghadami Firouzabadi , A., Chaychi, M. and Seyedan, M., 2017. Effects of different irrigation systems on yield, some agronomic traits, and water productivity of different wheat genotypes and their economic assessment in Hamedan. Journal of Water Research in Agriculture, 31 (2), pp.  139-149. (In Persian).
7-    Ghasemi Nezhad Raeini, M.R., Marofi, S.,  Zare Kohan, M. and  Maleki, A., 2015. Investigation of water efficiency index and its comparison with the actual conditions of wheat farms. Journal of Irrigation Science and Engineering (Journal of Agricultural Science), 38(1), pp. 72-77. (In Persian).
8-    Gholami, Z., Ebrahimian, H and Nuri, H., 2016. Investigation of irrigation water productivity in sprinkler and surface irrigation systems (Case study: Qazvin Plain). Journal of Irrigation Science and Engineering (Agricultural Journal), 39 (3), pp. 135-146. (In Persian).
9-    Haghighati, B., 2013. Extension plan report - improving water management and optimization in agricultural production process. Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center. (In Persian).
10- Heydari, N., 2011. Determination and evaluation of water use efficiency of some major crops under farmers management in Iran. Journal of Water and Irrigation Management,1(2), pp.  43-57. (In Persian).
11- Kahlown, M. A., Raoof, A., Zubair, M. and Doral Kemper, W., 2007. Water use efficiency and economic feasibility of growing rice and wheat with sprinkler irrigation in the Indus Basin of Pakistan. Agricultural Water Management, 87(3), pp.  292-298.
12- Moayeri, M. 2013. Determining Water Use Productivity Potential of Wheat Cultivars in Different Irrigation Methods (sprinkler, drip and surface) in different climatic conditions of Iran. Final Report of the Agricultural Engineering Research Institute (In Persian).
13- Montazar, A. and Kosari, H., 2007. Water productivity analysis of some irrigated crops in Iran. Proceeding of the International Conference of Water Saving in Mediterranean Agriculture and Future Needs. Valenzano (Italy). Series B, 56(1), pp.  109-120.
14- Monotti, M., Borghi, B., Chiducci, M., Boggini, G. and Gambelli, M. L., 1982. Effects of irrigation and other ogronomic practices on wheat grain yield. Universita di Perugia General e Coltivazioni Erba Universita di Perugia.
15- Naseri, A., 1998. Analysis and optimization of water consumption and crop production in Moghan. Proceedings of the 9th Iranian National Committee on Irrigation and Drainage. (In Persian).
16- Neyrizi, S. and Helmy Fakhrood, R., 2004. Comparison of Water use Productivity in Multiple Khorasan Points. Proceedings of the 11th Conference. 391- Iranian Irrigation and Drainage Committee. Tehra,. (In Persian).
17- Oron, G., Demalach, J. and Bearman, J. E., 1996. Trickle irrigation  of wheat applying renovated waste water. Water Resources  Bulletin, 22(3) ), pp. 439-446.
18- Saleem, M., Wagas, A. and Ahmad, R.N., 2010. Comparison of three wheat varieties with different irrigation systems for water productivity. International Journal of Applied Agricultural Sciences, 2(1), pp.  7-10.
19- Sammis, T.W., 1980. Comparison of sprinkler, trickle. Subsurface and furrow irrigation methods for row crops. Agronomy. Journal, 72, pp. 701- 704.
20- Zwart, S. J and Bastiaansen, W. G. M.,  2004. Review of  measured crop water productivity values for irrigated wheat, rice, cotton and maize. Agricultural Water Management, 69(2) ), pp.  115-133.
Volume 43, Issue 1
March 2020
Pages 29-42
  • Receive Date: 23 September 2017
  • Revise Date: 11 December 2017
  • Accept Date: 17 December 2017
  • Publish Date: 20 March 2020