The Effect of Surface and Subsurface Drip Irrigation System on Qualitative and Quantitative Characteristics of Dates of Kabkab Cultivar

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Research Assistant Professor of Agricultural Engineering Research Department, Khuzestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Ahvaz, Iran.

2 Scientific Broad Member, Agricultural Engineering Research Institute (AERI), Agricultural Research Education, and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran

3 Scientific Broad Member, Department Research Extension and Social, E, Bushehr Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Bushehr, Iran.


Increased production per unit volume of consumed water requires more precise planning in selecting the appropriate irrigation method for the optimal use of available water resources in the agricultural sector. The province of Khuzestan has been ranked third with 13.8 percent of the total date production of the country. Therefore, using pressurized irrigation methods with the goal of optimal utilization of water resources is inevitable. This research was carried out with the aim of investigating the possibility of utilizing subsurface drip irrigation systems in date orchards and determining the most suitable irrigation treatments in terms of yield and water use efficiency for Kabkab cultivar. Mohebbi and Alihoori (2013), in a study conducted with four irrigation treatments including surface irrigation and drip irrigation with 75% and 100% cumulative evaporation of class A evaporation pan in Hormozgan province, showed that despite different amounts of water in treatment irrigations, there was no significant difference in fruit yield, vegetative traits, and shading surface. The highest and lowest water use efficiency was obtained from drip irrigation treatment with 75% water and surface irrigation treatment with water content equal to 100% cumulative evaporation from class A evaporation pan. Therefore, irrigation with drip irrigation method and 75% cumulative evaporation from class A pans were recommended for irrigation of palm groves. The results of Mohebi’s (2005) study on comparing the effects of two equivalent amounts of water, 75% and 100% evaporation of class A pan in two methods of drip irrigation and surface irrigation on the growth and development of the palm cultivar Peeyaram showed that, among different treatments, there were significant differences in vegetative growth indices such as the number of leaflets, the trunk diameter, and the shading surface. However, in terms of leaf number, yield and quality characteristics of fruit including pH, moisture, soluble solids and total sugar content, the differences among treatments were not significant. The irrigation interval was two days in a drip method and seven days in a surface treatment. The results also showed that although different treatments provided different levels of water for trees, there was no significant difference between treatments in terms of yield and quality traits. The effect of treatments on vegetative traits and yield was not significant. Water consumption in 75% evaporation treatment in drip irrigation method was as much as about 40% of water use in surface irrigation. Therefore, treatment of 75% evaporation from the pan was introduced in the drip irrigation treatment method.


Main Subjects

1-    Ahmed, T. F., Hashmi, H.N. and Ghumman, A. R., 2011. Performance assessment of Subsurface Drip irrigation System using pipes of varying flexibility. Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering & Technology. 30 (3), pp. 361-370. [ISSN 0254-7821].
 2-    Alihouri, M. and Tishehzan, P., 2011. Irrigation sub-program - Dates strategy program in the country. Ahvaz: Kerdgar Publications. (in persian).
 3-    Allen, R. G., Pereira, L. S., Raes, D. and Smith, M., 1998. Crop evapotranspiration: Guidelines for  computing crop water requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 56, Rome, Italy.
 4-    Al-Rumaih, M. and Kassem, M. A., 2003. The effect of irrigation interval on the yield and quality of palms dates. Canadian Society. of  Agricultural Engineering.,  Food and Biological Systems meeting. Montreal, conada: 43-58.
  5-    Al- Amood, A. I., Bacha, M. A. and Al- Dorby, A. M., 2000. Seasonal water use of date palms in the centeral region of Saudi Arabia. International Agricultural Engineering Journal, 9(2), pp. 51-62.
 6-    Anonymous., 1990. Official Methods of Analysis, 15thedn. Washington, D.C.Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
 7-    Anonymous., 2009. Water and agriculture in Saudi Arabia. AQUASTAT - FAO’s Information System on Water and Agriculture. Food and Agriculture organization of the United Nations. Available at:; Accessed on March 28, 2013.
 8-    Anonymous., 2012. Strategic Priorities for agricultural research. King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology. Ministry of Economy and Planning, Doc. No. 40P0001-PLN-0001-er01. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Accessed on March 28, 2012. Available at:
 9-    Anonymous, 2014. Volume I: Crop Production, Agricultural Crop Years 2012-2013 Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture, Planning and Economic Development Office, Office of Statistics and Information Technology, p. 132. (in Persian).
 10- Al-Zaidi, A. A., Baig, M. B., Elhag, E. A. and Al-Juhani, M. A., 2013. Farmers’ attitude towards the traditional and modern irrigation methods in Tabuk region - King-dom of Saudi Arabia. Chapter 8. in. Science, Policy and Politics of Modern Agricultural System: Global Context to local Dynamics of Sustainable Agriculture. Springer Science+business.
 11- Barreveld, W. H., 1993. Date palm production, FAO,Rome.
 12- Darfaoui, M. and Al-Assiri, A., 2010. response to climate change in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A report prepared for FAO-RNE. Available at: Accessed on March 23, 2013.
 13- Farshi, A.A., Shariati, M.R., Jarallahi, R., Ghaemi, M., ShahabiFar, R.M. and Tavallaiei, M., 1997. Estimated Water Requirements for Major Crop and Garden Plants in the country. (Two volumes), Soil and Water Research Institute, Agricultural Education Publishing. (in Persian).
 14- Farzamnia, M. and Raveri, Z., 2005. The Effect of Deficit Irrigation on Performance and Use of Water Consumption in the Bam. Agricultural Science 28(1), pp. 79-86. (in Persian).
 15- Foakwa, E. O., Paterson, A., Fowler, M. and J. Vieira. 2008. Particle size distribution and compositional effects on textural properties and appearance of dark chocolates. Journal of Food Engineering. 87: 181-190.
 16- GhaffariNejad, A., 2001. Design of the best distance and depth of irrigation of the Mazafati palm by drip irrigation method. Bam Research Center for Agricultural and Natural Resources of Kerman Province. Technical Rep. (in Persian).
 17- Hosseini, Z., 1990. Common methods of food decomposition, Shiraz University Press (in persian).
 18- Karami, E., 2006. Appropriateness of farmers’ adoption of irrigation methods: The application of AHP model. Agricultural Systems, 87:101-119. Doi:10.1016/j.agsy.2005.01.001.
 19- Liebenberg, P. J. and Zaid, A., 2002. Date Palm irrigation. Chapter 7. in. Date palm cultivation. Plant Production Pa-per 156 rev.1. Food and Agriculture organization of the United Nations (FAO). Rome, Italy.
 20- Mazlumzadeh, M., Abdipour, M., Shamsi, M. and Alavi, N., 2008, Palatine Mechanical Services, Fifth National Congress of Agricultural Machinery and Mechanization Engineering, Mashhad, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. (in Persian).
 21- Mohebi, A., 2005. Effect of irrigation water amounts in two surface and droplet methods on yield and quality traits of Peyaram dates. Soil and Water Sciences 19(1): 124-130. (in Persian).
22- Mohebbi, A., and Alihoori., M, 2013. Effect of depth and irrigation method on productivity, yield and vegetative traits of Peyaram Palm. Journal of Water Research in Agriculture Part B, 27(4), pp. 455-464. (in Persian).
 23- Nowroozi, M. and Zolfi Bavariani, M., 2010. Determination of date water requirement in drip irrigation method in Bushehr province. Journal of Water Research in Agriculture Part B, 24(1),pp. 21-30. (in Persian).
 24- Pezhman, H. 2002. A view on date palm situation and its research program in IRAN. Proc. of Date Palm Global Network Establishment Meeting, UAE University, Al Ain: 71-80.
25- Phene, C. J., 1995. The sustainability and potential of subsurface drip irrigation. In; Proc. 5th int. Microirrigation Congress,
26- Rastegar, H. and Zargari, H., 2011. Effects of water stress on yield and quality of Shahani date. 7 th Congress of Horticultural Sciences. Iran, Isfahan University of Technology, pp, 1608-1610. (in Persian).
27- Sephevand, M., 2009. Comparison of Water Requirement, Water Productivity and Its Economic Productivity in Wheat and Canola in the West of Iran during Rainy Years. Iranian Journal of Water Research 3(4), pp. 63-68. (in Persian).
28- Sivanappan, R. K., 1998. Low cost micro irrigation system for all crops and all  farmers In: Proceedings of Workshop Micro  irrigation and Sprinkler irrigation systems April 1998 at New  Delhi.  Organized  by Central Board of Irrigation and Power, Edited  by CVJ Verma,  pp.  IV-15-IV-20.
Volume 42, Issue 2
June 2019
Pages 153-165
  • Receive Date: 11 July 2017
  • Revise Date: 02 October 2017
  • Accept Date: 04 October 2017
  • Publish Date: 22 June 2019