Experimental Study of Water Entrainment in Plunging Phenomena in Channel’s Bend

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD student in Civil Engineering, Water Resources Engineering and Management, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.

2 Professor, Department of Hydraulic Structures, Faculty of Water and Environmental Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Hydraulic Structures, Faculty of Water and Environmental Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran


Turbidity currents, or dense flows, occurs when a fluid moves within another fluid with different densities, also Turbidity Current occurs when a fluid with a higher or lower density than the ambient fluid enters a fluid with a different density. The main cause of this phenomenon is the effect of the difference in density on gravitational acceleration; hence, Turbidity Currents are also referred to as gravitational flows (Graf & Altinakar, 2003). Karamichemeh (2014) investigated the effect of slope and concentration on turbulent flows in the submerged region along a straight path. To achieve this, they conducted 60 experiments with four discharge rates ranging from 5.0 to 2.0 liters per second, four concentrations with volumetric mass of 1013, 1009, 1006, and 1016 kilograms per cubic meter, and three slopes of 8, 12, and 16 percent. The results of this study showed that with an increase in the Richardson number (inverse of the square root of the densimetric Froude number), the intensity of mixing decreases. Additionally, the intensity of mixing in the submerged region is greater compared to the intensity of mixing in the body region. Given the limited studies on the movement of Turbidity currents in curved paths, the aim of this research is to investigate the effect of bends on the Water Entrainment in the plunging region.


Main Subjects

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Volume 47, Issue 1
June 2024
Pages 119-130
  • Receive Date: 16 May 2021
  • Revise Date: 03 March 2022
  • Accept Date: 06 March 2022
  • Publish Date: 21 May 2024