The effect of distance in flow induced vibration on power conversion caused by the oscillations of two tandem cylinders

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. in water structures, Faculty of Water and Environmental Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz,Iran.

2 Professor, Faculty of Water and Environmental Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz,Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Water and Environmental Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz,Iran

4 Professor, Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering Faculty, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.


Flow-induced vibrations (FIVs) are a type of vibration that is caused by the interaction of a structure with a fluid flow. FIVs can occur in a variety of structures, including bridges, buildings, and offshore structures. In the case of tandem cylinders, FIVs can be caused by the interaction of the two cylinders with the fluid flow.
FIVs are suppressed because of their destructive nature. MRElab managed to convert the kinetic energy of water flows into electricity by enhancing FIV (Bernitsas, 2016; Bernitsas et al., 2008). In MRElab, Flow Induced Vibrations (FIV) are studied to convert marine hydrokinetic energy, from oceans, tidal and rivers to electricity using the VIVACE energy harvester. Vortex Induced Vibrations for Aquatic Clean Energy Converter is probably the closest to commercialization because it has suffered extensive laboratory testing and many field deployments since its introduction in 2006. The objective of the Marine Renewable Energy Lab (MRELab) is to investigate FIV of single and multiple cylinders and find different ways to enhance FIV to design VIVACE Converters and optimize the power output for various flow velocities. Vortex-induced vibration (VIV) to a cylinder has been studied experimentally (Alam et al., 2003; Park, 2012) and numerically  (Ding et al., 2013; Kim et al., 2021) by researchers in order to eliminate or at least regulate this unsteady fluid-structure interaction phenomenon since it has been identified as the cause for many structural failures. But it is challenging, and it is still being debated due to the complexity of the interaction between body dynamics and fluid dynamics. The two cylinders arrangement has been studied in many types of research as the simplest arrangement. In this research, both cylinders can oscillate which has not been done very often in previous papers up to now. Moreover, most of the previous experiments on VIV were conducted in TrSL2 regime which fluctuating lift coefficient rises as the Re increases. But in this research, experiments placed in TrSL3 that shear layer becomes fully turbulent, and the fluctuating lift coefficient of a smooth cylinder reaches its maximum value.


Main Subjects

  • Alam, M.M., Moriya, M. and Sakamoto, H., 2003a. Aerodynamic characteristics of two side-by-side circular cylinders and application of wavelet analysis on the switching phenomenon. Journal of Fluids and Structures18(3-4), pp.325-346.


2- Alam, M.M., Moriya, M., Takai, K. and Sakamoto, H., 2003b. Fluctuating fluid forces acting on two circular cylinders in a tandem arrangement at a subcritical Reynolds number. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics91(1-2), pp.139-154.


3- Assi, G.D.S., Meneghini, J.R., Aranha, J.A.P., Bearman, P.W. and Casaprima, E., 2006. Experimental investigation of flow-induced vibration interference between two circular cylinders. Journal of fluids and structures22(6-7), pp.819-827.


4- Assi, G.R., Bearman, P.W. and Meneghini, J.R., 2010. On the wake-induced vibration of tandem circular cylinders: the vortex interaction excitation mechanism. Journal of Fluid Mechanics661, pp.365-401.


5- Atashi, V., Ghomeshi, M., Sajjadi, S. M., & Bernitsas, M. (2019). Effect of spacing on harnessed power for two tandem cylinders. Irrigation Sciences and Engineering, -.


6- Bearman, P.W., 2011. Circular cylinder wakes and vortex-induced vibrations. Journal of Fluids and Structures27(5-6), pp.648-658.


7- Bearman, P.W., 1984. Vortex shedding from oscillating bluff bodies. Annual Review of Fluid mechanics16(1), pp.195-222.


8- Bernitsas, M.M. and Raghavan, K., 2005a. Fluid motion energy converter, internasional. Provisional Patent Application. US Patent and Trandemark Office Serial.


9- Blevins, R.D. and Vibration, F.I., 1990. Van Nostrand Reinhold. New York34.


10- Chang, C.C.J., Kumar, R.A. and Bernitsas, M.M., 2011. VIV and galloping of single circular cylinder with surface roughness at 3.0× 104≤ Re≤ 1.2× 105. Ocean Engineering38(16), pp.1713-1732.


11- Govardhan, R. and Williamson, C., 2000. Modes of vortex formation and frequency response of a freely vibrating cylinder. Journal of Fluid Mechanics420, pp.85-130.


12- Govardhan, R.N. and Williamson, C.H.K., 2006. Defining the ‘modified Griffin plot’in vortex-induced vibration: revealing the effect of Reynolds number using controlled damping. Journal of Fluid Mechanics561, pp.147-180.


13- Igarashi, T. 1981. Characteristics of the flow around two circular cylinders arranged in tandem: 1st report. Bulletin of JSME, 24(188), 323-331.


14- Ishigai, S., Nishikawa, E., Nishimura, K., & Cho, K. 1972. Experimental study on structure of gas flow in tube banks with tube axes normal to flow: Part 1, Karman vortex flow from two tubes at various spacings. Bulletin of JSME, 15(86), 949-956.


15- Kim, S., Alam, M. M., Sakamoto, H., & Zhou, Y. 2009. Flow-induced vibrations of two circular cylinders in tandem arrangement. Part 1: Characteristics of vibration. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 97(5-6), 304-311.


16- Laneville, A. and Brika, D., 1999. The fluid and mechanical coupling between two circular cylinders in tandem arrangement. Journal of Fluids and Structures13(7-8), pp.967-986.


17- Ljungkrona, L., Norberg, C.H. and Sundén, B., 1991. Free-stream turbulence and tube spacing effects on surface pressure fluctuations for two tubes in an in-line arrangement. Journal of Fluids and Structures5(6), pp.701-727.


18- Park, H., 2012. Mapping of passive turbulence control to flow induced motions of circular cylinders (Doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan).


19- Parkinson, G., 1989. Phenomena and modelling of flow-induced vibrations of bluff bodies. Progress in Aerospace Sciences26(2), pp.169-224.


20- Sarpkaya, T., 2004. A critical review of the intrinsic nature of vortex-induced vibrations. Journal of fluids and Structures19(4), pp.389-447.


21- Strykowski, P.J. and Sreenivasan, K.R., 1990. On the formation and suppression of vortex ‘shedding’at low Reynolds numbers. Journal of Fluid Mechanics218, pp.71-107.


22- Sun, Q., Alam, M.M. and Zhou, Y., 2015. Fluid-Structure coupling between two tandem elastic cylinders. Procedia Engineering126, pp.564-568.


23- Van den Abeele, F. and Voorde, J.V., 2010. Flow Induced Oscillations of Marine Risers with Wake Interference. In Proceeding of the Comsol Conference. Paris. France.


24- Williamson, C.H., 1996. Vortex dynamics in the cylinder wake. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics28(1), pp.477-539.


25- Williamson, C.H. and Govardhan, R., 2004. Vortex-induced vibrations. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech.36, pp.413-455.

26- Zdravkovich, M.M., 1977. Review of flow interaction between two circular cylinders in various arrangement. Trans. ASME.


27- Zdravkovich, M.M., 1985. Flow induced oscillations of two interfering circular cylinders. Journal of Sound and Vibration101(4), pp.511-521.


28- Zdravkovich, M.M., 1987. The effects of interference between circular cylinders in cross flow. Journal of Fluids and Structures1(2), pp.239-261.


29- Zhou, Y. and Yiu, M.W., 2006. Flow structure, momentum and heat transport in a two-tandem-cylinder wake. Journal of Fluid Mechanics548, pp.17-48.


Volume 46, Issue 1
June 2023
Pages 95-110
  • Receive Date: 31 December 2020
  • Revise Date: 12 June 2021
  • Accept Date: 14 June 2021
  • Publish Date: 22 May 2023