A Survey of Water Resources Sustainability in Zayandehrood Basin Using Sustainability Indices and GMS Model (Case Study: Najaf Abad Aquifer in Zayandehrood Basin)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD Candidate of Water and Meteorology, Department of Phisical Geography, Faculty of Humanities, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Professor of Water and Meteorology, Department of Phisical Geography, Faculty of Humanities, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, College of Abouraihan, University of Tehran, Iran.

4 Professor, Department of Physical Geography, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.


Over the past years, population growth, the development of industry and agriculture have led to an increase in surface water and groundwater resources. Excessive withdrawal and severe drop in water levels as well as land degradation in some parts of the country have been to the extent that the resources are at risk, the situation is critical and this has made sustainable use efforts a must. For this reason, a comprehensive management plan is needed to improve feedback and to make accurate management decisions to maintain the balance and sustainability of water resources.Adopting sound management decisions requires proper, accurate, and scientific knowledge of the conditions of the water resources of the region. In discussing the management of groundwater resources and maintaining the balance and stability of aquifers, understanding the performance of the table in normal conditions, as well as simulating the effects of drainage or nutrition is necessary. Over the past years, many indicators have been developed for a quantitative assessment of water resource vulnerability. Therefore, selecting a criterion to demonstrate the correctness of the water situation can bring policy decisions closer to scientific decisions (Kang and Lee, 2011). The WSI index was successfully used to assess the sustainability of water resources in the Geum Basin in South Korea(Rachmad et al 2014). In the assessment of the sustainability of the area in the Batang Merao region of Indonesia in 2006-2011, four indexes of hydrology, environment, life and politics were measured. The purpose of this study was to provide an integrated watershed management framework and to help sustain the area.This study was conducted to investigate the stability of groundwater and surface water of Najaf Abad area.In order to control the crisis and sustainable management of the aquifer in the studied area, review Najaf Abad aquifer management and control solutions and prevent further crises resulting from unwanted harvesting, an analysis of water resources sustainability indexes has been done. Also, to investigate the sustainability of water resources in this area, three indicators of water consumption to renewable water (C / RW), available water (WAI) and water stress (WSI) have been used.The results of indicators showed the inconstancy of water resources in the region. In the next step, aquifer modeling was done using the MODFLOW code in Gms software.The purpose of this model was to validate the findings of sustainability indicators. The results of modelling and survey sustainability were matched by indexes.


Main Subjects

1-    Anonymous, 2015. Validation of the water resources inventory of the Gavkhoon watershed basin, which ended in the year 2009-2010. Volume 5: Assessment of Water Resources, Appendix 6: Report on the Water Resources Scale of Najafabad Study Area. (Code 4206). (In Persian).
2-    Asano, T., Burton, F., Leverenz, H., Tsuchihashi, R. and Tchobanoglous, G., 2006. Water reuse: issues, technologies,and applications. Metcalf & Eddy
3-    Chaves, H. and Alipaz, S., 2007. An integrated indicator based on basin hydrology, environment, life, and policy: The watershed sustainability index. Journal of Water Resources Management, 21(5), pp.883-895.
4-    Chenini, L. and Ben mamou, A., 2010. Groundwater recharge study in arid region, an approach using GIS techniques and numerical modelling. Computers and Geosciences, 36, pp.801-817.
5-    .Cortés A.E. Oyarzún R. Kretschmer N. Chaves H. Soto G. Soto M. Amézaga J. Oyarzún J. Rötting T. Señoret M. and Maturana H. 2012. Application of theWatershed Sustainability Index to the Elqui river basin, North-Central Chile Obras Proyectos, 12, pp.57-69
6-    Hafezparest, M. and Fatemi, A., 2017. Calculation of catchment stability indices in order to maintain sustainable development. Journal of Geography and Environmental Sustainability Research, 18, pp.33-21. (In Persian).
7-    Jingwei, L. and Zhifeng, L., 2017. A comprehensive index for stream depletion in coupled human-water. Journal of Hydro-environment ResearchSystems Science of the Total Environment, 16, pp.58-70.
8-    Kang, M.. and Lee, G., 2011. Multicriteria evaluation of water resources sustainability in the context of watershed management. Journal of the American Water Resources Association. 47(4), PP. 813-827.
9-    Komasi, M. and Sharghi, S., 2017. Outing and classification of effective factors in the groundwater level decline using cross and coherence wavelet transforms: Case study silakhor plain aquifer, Irrigation and Water Engineering, 7(4), pp. 138-151. (In Persian).
10- Kardan Moghaddam, H., Banihabib, M. and Javadi, S., 2017. Assessment of artificial recharge on aquifer restoring using sustainability index. Journal of Echo hydrology, 4(4), pp.1241-1253. (In Persian).
11- Meigh, J.R., Mckenzie, A. and Sene, k., 1999. A gride-based approach to water scarcity, estimates foreastern and southern Africa. Water Resources Management, 13, pp.85-115.
12- Nowzar poor, L., Chit sazan, M., Nadri, A. and Farhadi manesh, M., 2014. Evaluation of the hydraulic connection between Laur Andimeshk and Dez River aquifers using the MODFLOW model. Journal of Advanced Applied Geology, 17(5), pp.23-36. (In Persian).
13- Rachmad, F., Nobukazu, N. and Aswandi, I. 2014. Sustainablity assessment of humid tropical watershed: A case study of Batang Merao watershed, Indonesia, Procedia Environmental Sciences, 20, pp. 722-731.
14- Rijsberman, F.R., 2006. Water scarcity: Fact or fiction?, Journal of Agricultural Water Management, 80, pp.5–22.
15- Samani, J., Tahmasbi, A., and Tahmasbei Sarvestani, Z. 2003. Water Resources Management and Sustaionable Development. Vol. 22. Serial Number 7374. (in Persian).
16- Talebi Hossein Abad, F., Shahedi, M., Vellayati, s. and Davari, K., 2014. An estimation of renewable water using water budget model in the absence of adequate data. Journal of Geography and Regional Development, 12(22), pp.129-150. (In Persian).
Volume 43, Issue 3
October 2020
Pages 197-211
  • Receive Date: 11 March 2019
  • Revise Date: 29 June 2019
  • Accept Date: 03 July 2019
  • Publish Date: 22 September 2020