The Effect of Irrigation with Magnetized Wastewater of Gorgan Urban Refinery on Rice (Tarom Hashemi Cultivar) Yield

Document Type : Research Paper


1 M.Sc. Student, Department of Water Engineering, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Water Engineering, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering of Biosystem, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.

4 Ph.D. Student, Department of Plant Breeding, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.


Water is one of the sources that play an essential role in crop production and, if not properly managed, creates a severe limitation on drinking water consumption and agriculture. Water scarcity has become a crisis in recent years. It has challenged rice production in the country, so there is no choice but to increase productivity and optimize low-quality water. The use of effluent in supplying part or all of the water and nutrient needs of the crop, in addition to reducing the pressure on available water resources, also lowers production costs. It also avoids the problems of disposal of natural resources and environmental issues. Wastewater application can increase the amount of water available to the plant by changing the physical properties of the soil. Therefore, overall, these factors contribute to the sustainable use of water and soil resources in agriculture (Nikbakht & Rezaei, 2016). Direct and unmanaged use of this type of water, referred to as abnormal water, causes soil damage and reduces crop production in irrigation operations. Due to the importance of water and its scarcity in the country, proper use of water resources and irrigation water is one of the most critical goals in the agricultural sector. Therefore, a method that can increase the plant's yield under normal conditions by using a certain amount of water and the use of irrigation water in such a way that no problems occur for the plant can be used as a solution. It is essential to manage irrigation water use. In this regard, one of the approaches used in irrigation operations in recent years to use unusual waters is to pass irrigation water through a magnetic field. Water is a magnetic magnet that passes through a device with a magnetic core (Bodnarenko & Gac, 1984). Special measures, including unconventional water, are required to provide irrigation water for strategic products such as rice, which needs much water. Despite the beneficial aspects of urban wastewater, using these waters without proper management in agriculture leads to irreparable damage in a long time. To reduce its effects and the use of wastewater treatment systems, the magnetization method is considered. In the present study, the effect of magnetization of Gorgan urban wastewater effluent on hulls yield, biological yield, harvest index, water use efficiency, physical efficiency of water, and economic efficiency of water have been investigated.


Main Subjects

  • Abdul Qados, A.M.S. and Hozayn, M., 2010. Response of growth, yield components and some chemical constituents of Flax for irrigation with magnetized and tap water. World Applied Sciences Journal, 8(5), pp.630-634.


  • Ahmadi, P., 2010. Impact of magnetic field on water and agricultural applications of magnetic water. In The First International Conference on Plant, Water, Soil and Weadther Modeling, International Center for Advanced Science and Technology, Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran. (in Persian).


  • Aliverdi, A., RashedMohassel, M.H., Zand, E. and Nassiri Mahallati, M., 2009. Increased foliar activity of clodinafop propargyl and/or tribenuron methyl by surfactants and their synergistic action on wild oat (Avena ludoviciana) and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis). Weed Biology and Management, 9, pp.292-299.


  • Allen, R.G., Pereira, L.S., Raes, D. and Smith, M., 1998. Crop evapotranspiration. Irrigation and Drainage Paper. No. 56. FAO. United Nations, Rome, Italy.



  • Asadi, R., Nassiri, M. and Mohammadian M., 2008. Optimum management of water use in rice (dehydration conditions). Educational - Promotional Journal. (in Persian(


  • Badiei, A., Karandish, F. and Tabatabaei, S.M., 2016. The influence of irrigation with raw and treated municipal wastewater on Wheat yield and microbial characteristics of soil and plant. Water and Soil Science, 26(4.2), pp.215-228. (In Persian)


  • Bondarenko, N.F. and Gak, E.Z., 1984. Electromagnetic phenomena in natural waters. Gidrometeoizdat Publ., Leningrad154.


  • Bouman, B.A.M., Lampayan, R.M. and Tuong, T.P., 2007. Water management in irrigated rice: oping with water scarcity. Los Baños (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute. 54 p.


  • Cabangon, R.J., Toung, T.P. and Abdullah, N.B., 2002. Comparing water input and water productivity of transplanted and direct-seeded rice production systems. Agriculture Water Management, 57, pp.11–


  • Durate Diaz, C.E., Riquence, J.A., Sotolongo, B., Portunodo, M.A., Quintana, E.O. and Perez, R., 1997. Effects of magnetic treatment of irrigation water on the tomato crop. Abst, pp.69: 494.


  • Eshraqi, F. and Ghasemian, S.D., 2012. Economic productivity of water consumption in Golestan province. Journal of Water Research in Agriculture, 26(3), pp.317-322. (In Persian)


  • Farshi, A., Shariati, M.R., Jarallahi, R., Ghaemi, M.R., Shahabi Far, M. And Tulaei, M., 1977. Estimated water requirements for major agronomic plants in Iran. Volume 1: Crops. Agricultural Education Publishing. (in Persian(



  • Jenkins, C.R., Papadopoulos, I. and Stylianou, Y., 1994. Pathogens and wastewater use for irrigation in Cyprus. International Conference on Land and Water Resources Management in the Mediterranean Region, Italy.


  • Khanderoyan, M., 2011. Effect of continuous irrigation with magnetic water on water use efficiency and corn yield. MSc Thesis. Zanjan University. (In Persian)


  • Kiani, A.R., 2015. Guidelines for determining water productivity in farms. Engineering and Research Department, Golestan Agricultural Research and Training Center, Gorgan Agricultural Research, Training and Promotion Organization, Iran. (In Persian)


  • Maheshwari, B.L. and Grewal, H.S., 2009. Magnetic treatment of irrigation water: Its effect on vegetable crop yield and water productivity. Agricultural Water Management, 96, pp.1229-1236.


  • Mahmoudi, Gh., Ghanbari, A., Rastgoo, M., Gholi Zade, M. and Tahmasebi, I., 2016. Evaluating the magnetic field effects on growth and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) under Mashhad climatic conditions. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 14(2), pp.380-391. (In Persian)


  • Nashir, S.H., 2008. The effect of magnetic water on growth of chickpea. Journal of Engineering and Technology,26(9), pp.16-20.


  • Nikbakht, J. and Rezaei, E., 2016. The Effect of different levels of wastewater and magnetized water on yield and water use efficiency in maize irrigation and some soil physical properties. Iranian Journal of Soil and Water Research, 48(1), pp.63-75. (In Persian)


  • Nikbakht, J., Khanderoyan, M. and Tavakoli, A., 2012. Magnetizing water is a new and effective way to use unconventional water in irrigation. In The 2nd Iranian National Conference on Applied Research in Water Resources, Zanjan Regional Water Company, Zanjan, Iran. (In Persian)


  • Pirdashty, h., 1999. Investigation of the process of remobilization of dry matter, nitrogen and determination of growth indices of rice cultivars in different dates. MS.c thesis of Agronomy. Faculty of Plant Production Department. Tarbiat Modares University of Tehran. (In Persian(.


  • Pscode, M.B., 1992. Wastewater treatment and use in agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization the United Nations, Rome, Italy, pp.2-125.


  • Qin, J., Hu, F., Zhang, B., Wei, Z. and Li, H., 2006. Role of straw mulching in noncontinuously flooded rice cultivation. Agriculture Water Management, 83, pp.252–


  • Ran, C., Hongwei, Y., Jinsong, H. and Wanpeng, Z., 2009. The effects of magnetic fields on water molecular hydrogen bonds. Journal of Molecular Structure, 938, pp.15-19.


  • Ranjbar , Gh.H., Rousta, M.J. and Cheraghi, S.A.M., 2012. The effect of magnetic water on wheat growth indices in saline conditions. Journal of Water Research in Agriculture, 26(3), pp.263-273. (In Persian)


  • Sadeghipour, O. and Aghaei, P., 2014. Effect of drought stress and magnetic water application on yield and yield components of mung bean. Journal of Crop Research, 6(1), pp.79-87. (In Persian)


  • Sedaghati, N., Hosseinifard, S., Nikouei Dastjerdi, M. 2018. 'The Study on Effects of Magnetic Saline Water on Soil Chemical properties and permeability, Growth and Yield of Pistachio Trees', Journal of Water Research in Agriculture, 31.4(4), pp. 609-623. (In Persian)


  • Singh, R., van Dam, J.C. and Feddes, R.A., 2006. Water productivity analysis of irrigated crops in Sirsa District. Indian Agricutural Water Management, 82, pp.253-278.


  • Valynejad, M., MostafaZadeh, B. and Mirmohammady Maibody, S.A., 2002. The effect of Shahinshahr treated wastewater on agronomic and chemical characteristics of corn under sprinkier and surface irrigation systems. Journal of Science of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 9(1), pp.103-115. (In Persian)


  • Xiao-feng, P. and Bo, D., 2008. The changes of macroscopic features and microscopic structures of water under influence of magnetic field. Physica B, 403, pp.3571-3577.


  • Yazar, A., Gokcel, F. and Sezen, M.S., 2009. Corn yield response to partial rootzone drying and deficit irrigation strategies applied with drip system. Plant Soil Environment, 55(11), pp.494–503.


  • Yousefian, M., Arabzadeh, B., Sevdaei Mashei, S. and Mohammadi Nashli, Y., 2014. The effects of different irrigation levels on yield, quantitative and qualitative properties of two rice cultivars (Tarom and Shiroudi). Applied field crops Research, 104, pp.69-75. (In Persian)


  • Zwart, S.J. and Bastiaanssen, W.G.M., 2004. Review of measured crop water productivity values for irrigated wheat, rice, cotton and maize. Agricultural Water Management, 69(2), pp.115-133.
Volume 44, Issue 3
November 2021
Pages 75-87
  • Receive Date: 05 December 2019
  • Revise Date: 05 March 2020
  • Accept Date: 09 May 2020
  • Publish Date: 23 September 2021