Water quality assessment of surface and groundwater sources used for drinking and agriculture

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate Professor, Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Malayer University

2 PhD student in Environmental Pollution, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Malayer University.

3 BSc of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Malayer University

4 Bachelor of Environmental Graduate, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Malayer University.


Sustainable development is the most important challenge of human society in this century. In this regard, access to sufficient water resources of high quality is one of the effective factors to achieve sustainable development. One of the important applications of surface and groundwater resources is irrigation of agricultural products. Irrigation water quality affects soil quality (Kondash et al., 2020) and agricultural health (Aravinthasamy et al., 2020). Assessing the quality of water resources is one of the main requirements in the management, planning and development of water resources and their protection and control (Kumar et al., 2019). Given that the city of Malayer is globally known for its grapes, the study of water quality in this region is of great importance. One of the most effective methods for assessing water quality is the use of appropriate indicators for the assessment. Quality indicators convert the values ​​of water quality characteristics (measured parameters) into a number to be used in the management and analysis of water quality and monitoring of water quality changes over time and place (Carbajal-Hernández et al., 2013).


Main Subjects

  • Aghaee, M., Heshmatpour, A., G. Mahmoodlu, M. and Seyedian, S., 2020. 'Investigation of water quality of chehelchay river using IRWQIsc index, Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 22(5), pp. 153-166. (In Persian)


  • APHA, 2012. Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater. 22nd ed. edited by Rice W. Eugene, Baird B. Rodger, Eaton D. Andrew. American Public Health Association (APHA), American Water Works Association,Water Environmental Federation Washington, DC, USA.


  • Aravinthasamy, P., Karunanidhi, D., Rao, N.S., Subramani, T. and Srinivasamoorthy, K., 2020. Irrigation risk assessment of groundwater in a non-perennial river basin of South India: implication from irrigation water quality index (IWQI) and geographical information system (GIS) approaches. Arabian Journal of Geosciences13(21), pp.1-14.


  • Ayers, R.S. and Westcot D.W., 1989. Water quality for agriculture. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper, No. 29. 174p.


  • Berhe, B.A., 2020. Evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality suitability for drinking and agricultural purposes in Kombolcha town area, eastern Amhara region, Ethiopia. Applied Water Science, 10, 127.


  • Bhardwaj, V. and Singh, D.S., 2011. Surface and groundwater quality characterization of Deoria District, Ganga plain, India. Environmental Earth Sciences, 63(2), pp.383-395.


  • Carbajal-Hernández, J.J., Sánchez-Fernández, L.P., Villa-Vargas, L.A., Carrasco-Ochoa, J.A. and Martínez-Trinidad, J.F., 2013. Water quality assessment in shrimp culture using an analytical hierarchical process. Ecological indicators. 29,pp.148-58.


  • Debernardi, L., De Luca, D.A. and Lasagna, M., 2008. Correlation between nitrate concentration in groundwater and parameters affecting aquifer intrinsic vulnerability. Environmental Geology55(3), pp.539-558.


  • Deep, A., Gupta, V., Bisht, L. and Kumar, R., 2020. Application of WQI for water quality assessment of high-altitude snow-fed sacred Lake Hemkund, Garhwal Himalaya. Sustainable Water Resources Management6(5), pp.1-8.


  • Dexter, A.R., 2004. Soil physical quality. Part I. Theory effects of soil texture, density and organic matter, and effects on root growth. Geoderma, 120, pp. 201–214.


  • Dwivedi, S.L. and Pathak, V., 2007. A preliminary assignment of water quality index to Mandakini River, Chitrakoot. Indian Journal of Environmental Protection27(11), p.1036.


  • Ganjaei, S., Shiri, N. and Shiri, J., 2020. Spatial modeling of groundwater quality parameters in Azarshahr plain for agricultural use using geostatistical methods. Water and Soil Knowledge, 30 (4), pp.75-87. (In Persian).


  • Kiani, V. and Mel Hosseini Darani, K., 2020. Analytical comparison of compounds and solubility of salts by river water, wells, mixed and pure, Water and Wastewater Science and Engineering, 5 (3), pp. 66-60. (In Persian)


  • Kondash, A.J., Redmon, J.H., Lambertini, E., Feinstein, L., Weinthal, E., Cabrales, L. and Vengosh, A., 2020. The impact of using low-saline oilfield produced water for irrigation on water and soil quality in California. Science of the Total Environment733, p.139392.


  • Kumar, A., Kumar, K. and Alam, A.K., 2019. Spatial distribution of physicochemical parameters for groundwater quality evaluation in a part of Satluj River Basin, India. Water Supply. 19(5), pp. 1480-1490.


  • Lasagna, M., De Luca, D.A. and Franchino, E., 2016. Nitrate contamination of groundwater in the western Po Plain (Italy): the effects of groundwater and surface water interactions. Environmental Earth Sciences75(3), p.240.


  • Mahmoudizadeh, S. and Ismaili, A., 2021. Geostatistical modeling of spatial changes in groundwater quality using GIS and Will Cox model (Case study of Central and Konarak, Chabahar). Environment and Water Engineering, 7 (1), pp. 118-103. (In Persian)


  • Manassaram, D.M., Backer, L.C., Messing, R., Fleming, L.E., Luke, B. and Monteilh, C.P., 2010. Nitrates in drinking water and methemoglobin levels in pregnancy: a longitudinal study. Environmental Health9(1), pp.1-12.


  • Mellander, P.E., Melland, A.R., Murphy, P.N.C., Wall, D.P., Shortle, G. and Jordan, P., 2014. Coupling of surface water and groundwater nitrate-N dynamics in two permeable agricultural catchments. The Journal of Agricultural Science152(1), pp.107-124.


  • Molla, M.M.A., Saha, N., Salam, S.M.A. and Rakib-uz-Zaman, M., 2015. Surface and groundwater quality assessment based on multivariate statistical techniques in the vicinity of Mohanpur, Bangladesh. International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering, 4(1), p.18.


  • Motamedi Rad, M., Goli Mokhtari, L., Bahrami, S. and zanganeh asadi, M.A., 2021. Assessment of the quality of water resources for drinking, agriculture and industry in karstic aquifer of Roein Esfarayen basin of North khorasan province. Researches in Geographical Sciences. 21 (62), pp. 73-93. (In Persian).


  • Oroji, B., Vosough Gol Tappeh, B. and Fazel Tavassol, S., 2010. The trend of qualitative changes in groundwater resources of Malayer plain (Hamadan) and its evaluation with international standards, the First National Conference to Review the Achievements of Iranian Earth Scientists, Tehran. https://civilica.com/doc/87947. (In Persian).


  • Parsaie, F., Mahmoodi, M. A. and Egdernezhad, A., 2021. Assessment of Groundwater Quality for Drinking and Agriculture in Qorveh Plain. Wetland Ecobiology, 12 (1) , pp. 65-80. (In Persian)


  • Radfard, M., Yunesian, M., Nabizadeh, R., Biglari, H., Nazmara, S., Hadi, M., Yousefi, N., Yousefi, M., Abbasnia, A. and Mahvi, A.H., 2018. Drinking water quality and arsenic health risk assessment in Sistan and Baluchestan, Southeastern Province, Iran. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal. 949-965.


  • Ram, A., Tiwari, S.K., Pandey, H.K., Chaurasia, A.K., Singh, S. and Singh, Y.V., 2021. Groundwater quality assessment using water quality index (WQI) under GIS framework. Applied Water Science11(2), pp.1-20.


  • Riahi Madvar, H. and Seifi, A., 2016. Spatial group analysis and fuzzy spatial analysis of Shahr-e-Babak plain groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation, Iran-Water Resources Research, 12(2), pp. 152-157. (In Persian)


  • Rickwood, C.J. and Carr, G.M., 2009. Development and sensitivity analysis of a global drinking water quality index, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 156(4), pp. 73-90.


  • Saadatmand, A., Noorollahi, Y., Yousefi, H. and Mohammadi, A., 2021. Investigation, modeling and analysis of qualitative parameters of groundwater resources in Kurdistan’s Kamyaran plain. Iranian Journal of Ecohydrology8(2), pp.357-367. (In Persian).


  • Sabzevari, , Haghiabi, A. H. and Nasrollahi, A. H., 2020. Evaluation of Groundwater Resources Quality and Its Effect on soil permeability in Borujerd-Doroud Plain Using statistical and geostatistical analysis. Desert Ecosystem Engineering Journal, 8(25), pp. 27-38. (In Persian)


  • Safadoust, A., Dasht Pima, B., Mosadeghi, M. R. and Asgarzadeh, H., 2018. Effects of Irrigation Water Quality on Some Soil Physical Indicators, Applied Soil Research, 6(2), pp. 58-69. (In Persian)


  • Sakizadeh, M. 2017. The Quality Variation of Groundwater in Malayer City with an Emphasis on the Impacts of Agricultural Land Use on the Quality of Water. Human & Environment, 15(1), pp. 25-36. (In Persian).


  • Shiri, N. and Nourani, V., 2021. Qualitative zoning of Tabriz Plain groundwater Resources with using WQI, Hydrogeology, https://hydro.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_12703.html?lang=en. (In Persian)


  • Silva, M.I., Gonçalves, A.M.L., Lopes, W.A., Lima, M.T.V., Costa, C.T.F., Paris, M., Firmino, P.R.A. and De Paula Filho, F.J., 2021. Assessment of groundwater quality in a Brazilian semiarid basin using an integration of GIS, water quality index and multivariate statistical techniques. Journal of Hydrology, 598, p.126346.


  • Solgi, E. and Nasiri, M., 2019. Zoning of Some Drinking Water Quality Parameters Using GIS (Case Study: Malyer City). Irrigation and Water Engineering, 9(4), 177-190. (In Persian).


  • Taloor, A.K., Pir, R.A., Adimalla, N., Ali, S., Manhas, D.S., Roy, S. and Singh, A.K., 2020. Spring water quality and discharge assessment in the Basantar watershed of Jammu Himalaya using geographic information system (GIS) and water quality Index (WQI). Groundwater for Sustainable Development10, p.100364.


  • Tong, S., Li, H., Tudi, M., Yuan, X. and Yang, L., 2021. Comparison of characteristics, water quality and health risk assessment of trace elements in surface water and groundwater in China. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety219, p.112283.


  • Toolabi, A., Bonyadi, Z., Paydar, M., Najafpoor, A.A. and Ramavandi, B., 2021. Spatial distribution, occurrence, and health risk assessment of nitrate, fluoride, and arsenic in Bam groundwater resource, Iran. Groundwater for Sustainable Development, 12, p.100543.


  • Udeshani, W.A.C., Dissanayake, H.M.K.P., Gunatilake, S.K. and Chandrajith, R., 2020. Assessment of groundwater quality using water quality index (WQI): A case study of a hard rock terrain in Sri Lanka. Groundwater for Sustainable Development11, p.100421.


  • Verma, P., Singh, P.K., Sinha, R.R., and Tiwari, A.K., 2020. Assessment of groundwater quality status by using water quality index (WQI) and geographic information system (GIS) approaches: a case study of the Bokaro district, India. Applied Water Science, 10:27.


  • Wang, Q., Wu, X., Zhao, B., Qin, J. and Peng, T., 2015. Combined multivariate statistical techniques, water pollution index (WPI) and Daniel trend test methods to evaluate temporal and spatial variations and trends of water quality at Shanchong River in the Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China. PloS one10(4), p.e0118590.


  • Wang, Z., Jiang, Y., Awasthi, M.K., Wang, J., Yang, X., Amjad, A., Wang, Q., Lahori, A.H. and Zhang, Z., 2018. Nitrate removal by combined heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrification processes: impact of coexistent ions. Bioresource Technology. 250, 838–845.


  • Wilcox, L.V., 1955. Classification and Use of Irrigation Water. US Department of Agriculture, Washington, pp. 19 Circular No. 969.


  • Zanotti, C., Rotiroti, M., Fumagalli, L., Stefania, G.A., Canonaco, F., Stefenelli, G., Prévôt, A.S.H., Leoni, B. and Bonomi, T., 2019. Groundwater and surface water quality characterization through positive matrix factorization combined with GIS approach. Water Research159, pp.122-134.
Volume 45, Issue 3
December 2022
Pages 97-111
  • Receive Date: 06 August 2021
  • Revise Date: 28 November 2021
  • Accept Date: 30 November 2021
  • First Publish Date: 30 November 2021