Document Type : Research Paper
Associate Professor, Water Engineering Department, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University
Agricultural and Biological Engineering 289 Frazier Rogers Hall PO Box 110570 University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611-0570, USA
Climate change means any specific change in the long-term average weather state that occurs in a given place or for the entire global (Goudarzi and Koupaei, 2020). Climate change is one of the most critical factors threatening food security and it is expected to make food and nutrition security more challenging in the future (Carpena et al. 2019). It can affect the agricultural sector in the future by changing the irrigation water requirement, crop yield and water productivity (Boonwichai et al., ,2018؛ Liu et al., 2019). Following wheat and maize, rice is the third most important crop in the world (Kapela et al. 2020). The occurrence of water shortages and droughts have raised concerns about the sustainability of rice production, including the main rice cultivation production region of Mazandaran in Iran (Yousefian 2018). Most studies have reported that rice production will decrease in the future due to a projected increase in temperature and a projected decrease in precipitation) Basak et al. 2010; Boonwichai et al. 2018; Nasir et al. 2020; Nicolas et al. 2020). Although many farmers, particularly in Iran, feel that permanent flooding conditions for rice farming are inevitable, climate change forces the use of water-saving technologies to ensure the long-term viability of irrigated rice production in paddy fields (Yosefian 2018; Mirfendereski 2021).