Comparison of open and combined closed hydroponic system on water productivity, nutrient use efficiency yield and fruit quality of cucumber

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate Professor of department of horticulture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran,

2 Former student of department of horticulture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran


One of the greatest challenges currently facing society is the production of high-yield and high-quality foods due to population growth and the need to increase food production. In this study, the effect of two hydroponic systems on water productivity, nutrient use efficiency yield and fruit quality of three greenhouse cucumber cultivars have been investigated. This experiment is in the form of split plots in a randomized complete block design, with the treatment of cucumber cultivars (Strong, Yalda, and RY) and type of hydroponic cultivation system (open and combined closed) in which 3 replicates were implemented at Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. The studied traits included water productivity, nutrient use efficiency, crop yield, fruit length and diameter, fruit volume, fruit firmness, fruit dry weight, fruit carotenoids, phenolic compounds, total soluble solids, titratable acidity were measured. The highest fruit length, fruit diameter, yield, water productivity and nutrient use efficiency were obtained in the combined closed system. The highest fruit firmness, total soluble solids, phenolic compounds were obtained in the open system. The combined closed system increased crop yield, water productivity and nutrient use efficiency by 22.63%, 80.81% and 81.92 % respectively, as compared to the open system. The highest phenolic compounds, fruit length, yield and water productivity were calculated in the RY cultivar. The RY cultivar increased phenolic compounds by 56.30% and 71.98% respectively, as compared to the Strong and Yalda cultivars. Based on the results, Fruit diameter had a significant correlation with fruit length (0.47*) and crop yield (0.55*). According to the results of this study, combined closed system and RY cultivar have the highest quality characteristics of fruit and yield, therefore they can be recommended for greenhouse production.


Main Subjects

  • Abd-Elmoniem, E.M., Abdrabbo, M.A., Farag, A.A. and Medany, M.A., 2006. Hydroponics for food production: comparison of open and closed systems on yield and consumption of water and nutrient. In 2nd International Conference on Water Resources and Arid Environments. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: King Saud University(pp. 1-8).


  • Ahirwar, C.S., Singh, D.K. and Kushwaha, M.L., 2017. Assessment of genetic variation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) germplasm on correlation, path analysis and cluster analysis. Chemical Science Review and Letters6(23), pp.1886-1893.





  • AlShrouf, A., 2017. Hydroponics, aeroponic and aquaponic as compared with conventional farming.  Sci. Res. J. Eng. Technol. Sci27(1), pp.247-255.


  • Antolinos, V., Sanchez-Martinez, M.J., Maestre-Valero, J.F., Lopez-Gomez, A. and Martinez-Hernandez, G.B., 2020. Effects of irrigation with desalinated seawater and hydroponic system on tomato quality. Water12(2), p.518. doi: 10.3390/w12020518.


  • Arnon, A. N .1967. Method of extraction of chlorophyll in the plants. Agronomy Journal, 23:112-121.


  • Benzie, I.F. and Strain, J.J., 1996. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Analytical biochemistry239(1), pp.70-76. Doi: 10.1006/abio.1996.0292.


  • Cardoso, D. S. C. P., Sediyama, M. A. N., Poltronieri, Y., FONSECA, M. C., and Neves, Y. F. 2017. Effect of concentration and N: K ratio in nutrient solution for hydroponic production of cucumber. Revista Caatinga, 30, 818-824.


  • Fayezizadeh, M.R., Alemzadeh Ansari, N., Khaleghi, E. and Albaji, M., 2023. The effect of two hydroponic systems on physical, chemical and fruit yield of two greenhouse tomato cultivars. Plant Productions46(1), pp.11-23.doi: 10.22055/ppd.2021.35144.1943


  • Ghani, M.I., Saleem, S., Rather, S.A., Rehmani, M.S., Alamri, S., Rajput, V.D., Kalaji, H.M., Saleem, N., Sial, T.A. and Liu, M., 2022. Foliar application of zinc oxide nanoparticles: An effective strategy to mitigate drought stress in cucumber seedling by modulating antioxidant defense system and osmolytes accumulation. Chemosphere289, p.133202. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.133202.


  • Kaur, H., Bedi, S., Sethi, V.P. and Dhatt, A.S., 2018. Effects of substrate hydroponic systems and different N and K ratios on yield and quality of tomato fruit. Journal of Plant Nutrition41(12), pp.1547-1554.‏ doi: 10.1080/01904167.2018.1459689.


  • Khafajeh, H., Banakar, A., Minaei, S. and Delavar, M., 2020. Evaluation of AquaCrop model of cucumber under greenhouse cultivation. The Journal of Agricultural Science158(10), pp.845-854.


  • Maboko, M.M. and Du Plooy, C.P., 2012, January. Alternative method of optimizing yield of tomatoes in a closed hydroponic system. In II All Africa Horticulture Congress 1007(pp. 579-585). Doi: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2013.1007.67.


  • Maucieri, C., Nicoletto, C., Junge, R., Schmautz, Z., Sambo, P. and Borin, M., 2018. Hydroponic systems and water management in aquaponics: A review. Italian Journal of Agronomy13(1), pp.1-11.


  • Miller, A., Langenhoven, P. and Nemali, K., 2020. Maximizing productivity of greenhouse-grown hydroponic lettuce during winter. HortScience55(12), pp.1963-1969. Doi: 10.21273/HORTSCI15351-20.


  • Ongena, M. A. R. C., Daayf, F., Jacques, P., Thonart, P., Benhamou, N., Paulitz, T. C., and Bélanger, R. R. 2000. Systemic induction of phytoalexins in cucumber in response to treatments with fluorescent pseudomonads. Plant Pathology, 49(4), 523-530. ‏ doi: 10.1046/j.1365-3059.2000.00468.x.


  • Phantong, P., Machikowa, T., Saensouk, P. and Muangsan, N .2018. Comparing growth and physiological responses of Globba schomburgkiif. and Globba marantina L. under hydroponic and soil conditions. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture. ‏ 30(2): 157-164.


  • Resh, H. M.2013. Hydroponic food production. A definitive guidebook of soilless food growing methods (No. Ed. 5). Woodbridge press publishing company, pp 27.


  • Rodriguez-Ortega, WM. Martinez, V. Nieves, M. Simon, I. Lidon, V. Fernandez Zapata, JC. and Garcia Sanchez, F. Agricultural and physiological responses of tomato plants grown in different soilless culture systems with saline water under greenhouse conditions. Scientific reports, 9(1), pp: 1-13.


  • Rosa-Rodríguez, R.D.L., Lara-Herrera, A., Trejo-Téllez, L.I., Padilla-Bernal, L.E., Solis-Sánchez, L.O. and Ortiz-Rodríguez, J.M., 2020. Water and fertilizers use efficiency in two hydroponic systems for tomato production. Horticultura Brasileira38, pp.47-52.


  • Saito, T., Matsukura, C., Ban, Y., Shoji, K., Sugiyama, M., Fukuda, N. and Nishimura, S. 2008. Salinity stress affects assimilate metabolism at the gene-expression level during fruit development and improves fruit quality in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 77(1): 61-68.


  • Savvas, D. and Gruda, N. 2018. Application of soilless culture technologies in the modern greenhouse industry A review. European Journal of Horticultural Science, 83(5): 280-293. ‏doi: 10.17660/eJHS.2018/83.5.2.


  • Schmautz, Z., Loeu, F., Liebisch, F., Graber, A., Mathis, A., Griessler Bulc, T. and Junge, R., 2016. Tomato productivity and quality in aquaponics: Comparison of three hydroponic methods. Water8(11), p.533. doi: 10.3390/w8110533.


  • Shehata, S. A., Abdelrahman, S. Z., Megahed, M., Abdeldaym, E. A., El-Mogy, M. M., and Abdelgawad, K. F. 2021. Extending Shelf Life and Maintaining Quality of Tomato Fruit by Calcium Chloride, Hydrogen Peroxide, Chitosan, and Ozonated Water. Horticulturae7(9), 309. Doi: 10.3390/horticulturae7090309.


  • Singh, M. C., Singh, G. K., and Singh, J. P. 2019. Nutrient and water use efficiency of cucumbers grown in soilless media under a naturally ventilated greenhouse. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology21(1), 193-207.


  • Uthpala, T.G.G.; Marapana, R.A.U.J.; Lakmini, K.; Wettimuny, D.C. Nutritional bioactive compounds and health benefits of fresh and processed cucumber (Cucumis sativus). SJB3, 75–82.


  • Verdoliva, S.G., Gwyn-Jones, D., Detheridge, A. and Robson, P., 2021. Controlled comparisons between soil and hydroponic systems reveal increased water use efficiency and higher lycopene and β-carotene contents in hydroponically grown tomatoes. Scientia Horticulturae279, p.109896. doi: 10.1016/j.scienta.2021.109896.


  • Voca, S., Dobricevic, N., Skendrovic Babojelic, M., Druzic, J., Duralija, B. and Levacic, J.2007. Differences in fruit quality of strawberry cv. Elsanta depending on cultivation system and harvest time. Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, 72(4):285-288.


  • Yuan, W. Zhao, P. Chen, H. Wang, L. Huang, G. Cao, L. Huang, Q. Natural green-peel orange essential oil enhanced the deposition, absorption and permeation of prochloraz in cucumber. RSC Adv.9, 20395–20401.


  • López-Acosta, P.P., Cano-Montes, A., Torres-Flores, N., Rodríguez-De la Rocha, G.S., Rodríguez-Rodríguez, S.M. and Rodríguez-Rodríguez, R., 2011. Efecto de diferentes concentraciones de potasio y nitrógeno en la productividad de tomate en cultivo hidropónico. Tecnociencia chihuahua5(2), pp.98-104.


  • Moreno-Perez, EDC. Sanchez-Del Castillo, F. Gutierrez-Tlaque, J. Gonzalez-M, L; Pineda-Pineda, J. 2015. Greenhouse lettuce production with and without nutrient solution recycling. Revista Chapingo Serie Horticultura. 21: 43-55.


  • Kempen, E., Agenbag, G.A. and Deckers, S., 2017. Variations in water and macronutrient uptake of soilless tomato as affected by the nutrient solution composition. South African Journal of Plant and Soil34(2), pp.139-148. Doi: 1080/02571862.2016.1213321.
Volume 46, Issue 4
January 2024
Pages 41-52
  • Receive Date: 17 October 2022
  • Revise Date: 20 December 2022
  • Accept Date: 21 December 2022
  • Publish Date: 22 December 2023