Investigation of drought time steps and effects of land use changes on quantitative and qualitative water parameters of Plasjan river

Document Type : Research Paper


1 M.Sc. Student of Irrigation and Drainage, Department of Water Sciences and Engineering, Collage of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Ardakan University, Ardakan, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Water Sciences and Engineering, Collage of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Ardakan University, Ardakan, Iran,

3 PhD graduated student in watershed management, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Water Sciences and Engineering, Collage of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Ardakan University, Ardakan, Iran


Drought refers to the lack of rainfall in the long trun, which is one of the most important natural disasters due to its spatial extent and short-term and long-term economic, social and environmental consequences (Nikbakht and Moradi, 2019). Factors affecting the physical, chemical and microbial properties of surface waters: precipitation, geographical location, climate, geology, industrial activities, domestic wastewater, agriculture, mineral pollutants, etc. can be mentioned (Mishra et al., 2017). In addition to drought, land use changes change the hydrological cycle of the basin and upset the balance between rainfall, evaporation, soil permeability and runoff (Farokhzadeh et al., 2016). Land use is one of the most important factors affecting the quality of surface water resources, especially rivers, as land population changes, land use patterns change. Therefore, runoff from rainfall as well as urban wastewater discharge leads to an increase in the amount of nutrients and other pollutants into rivers and surface water sources (Moradi et al., 2012). Tahiru et al. (2020) investigated the impact of land use change and land cover on water quality in a catchment area in the northern region of Ghana. Their results showed that there is a positive relationship between land use change and land cover and water quality parameters. Soltani-Gerdefaramarzi et al., (2021) investigated the effect of land use on surface water quality under both wet and dry periods in the Godarkhosh watershed. The results showed that barren and residential lands had the greatest impact on surface water quality and rangeland and forest land use showed a negative correlation with water quality parameters. Also, a strong significant relationship was found between water quality parameters and land use in dry years. Lei et al. (2021) investigated the effects of land cover, topography, and soil on water flow quality at multiple and seasonal spatial scales in a German lowland catchment. Overall changes in water quality on larger scales were estimated better in the summer. Due to the location of Iran in the dry land belt, most of its area will experience drought during most days of the year, which will cause changes in water and environmental resources. Biology, economic growth and development, agricultural activities, etc. are essential; on the other hands, land use changes have a significant impact on surface water quality. This effect can improve or reduce the quality of surface water. These changes have a great adverse effect on the environment and water resources, so the control and monitoring of surface water for various uses is necessary to make water of good quality available to the public. One of the main sources of drinking water, agriculture and industry in Isfahan province is the Eskandari watershed and the Plasjan river. Therefore, paying attention to water resources is one of the appropriate and necessary management measures at the level of the entire basin. Therefore, in the current research, land use changes during two periods of drought and drought have been investigated on the quantitative and qualitative parameters of the Plasjan River.


Main Subjects

  • Akbari, J., Kazemzadeh, M., and Alipour, H. 2020. Surface Water Quality Evaluation under Land Use Changes (Case study: Mahabad Chai Watershed). Journal of Rainwater Catchment Systems, 7(4), PP. 41-54. (In Persian).


  • Alavipanah, S. K. and Masoudi, M. 2000. Land Use Mapping Using Landsat TM and Geographic Information System (GIS), a Case Study: Mouk Region of Fars Province. Journal of Agriculture Science Natural Resources, 8(1).65-75.


  • Allen, J. D. 2004. The influence of land use on stream ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics, 35, 257–284.


  • Alizadeh, A. 2004. Principles of Applied Hydrology. Imam Reza University.942 p. (In Persian).


  • Azhar, S. C. 2021. Land Use and River Water Quality Relationships in the Muda River Basin, Malaysia. Educatum Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology8(1), PP. 36-48. Doi: 10.37134/ejsmt.vol8.1.5.2021.


  • Boudad, B., Sahbi, H., and Mansouri, I. 2018. Analysis of meteorological and hydrological drought based in SPI and SDI index in the Inaouen Basin (Northern Morocco). Journal of Materials and Environmental Science, 9(1). 219-227. Doi: 10.26872/jmes.2018.9.1.25.


  • Ding, Y., Xu, J., Wang, X., Cai, H., Zhou, Z., Sun, Y., and Shi, H. 2021. Propagation of meteorological to hydrological drought for different climate regions in China. Journal of Environmental Management283, PP.111980-111980. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.111980.


  • Farokhzadeh, B. Ildoromi, A. Attaeian, B. and Nourouzi, M., 2016. Evaluation of the Effects of Land Use Changes on Suspended Load Using SWAT Model (Case Study: Yalfan Watershed Hamadan Province). Environmental Erosion Research, 3(19), PP. 28-46. Dor: 20.1001.1.22517812.1394. (In Persian).


  • Ghafari, S., Moradi, H. R., and Moddares, R. 2020. The impact of Land Use Change on Groundwater Level in Isfahan-Borkhar, Najafabad and Chadegan Plains. Iranian Journal of Soil and Water Research, 50(9), PP. 2355-2371. Doi: 10.22059/IJSWR.2019.275564.668126. (In Persian).


  • Gheysouri, M., Soltani-Gerdefaramarzi, S., and Ghasemi, M. 2018. Assessment of Meteorological and Hydrological Drought and its Effect on Water Quality: (Case Study: Godarkhosh River). Irrigation Sciences and Engineering41(4), PP. 91-105. Doi: 10.22055/JISE.2017.20927.1499. (In Persian).


  • Heshmatpour, A., Jandaghi, N., Pasand, S., and Ghareh Mahmoodlu, M. 2020. Drought effects on surface water quality in Golestan province for Irrigation Purposes, Case study: Gorganroud River. Journal of Physical Geography Quarterly, 12(48), PP. 75-88. Dor: 20.1001.1.20085656.1399. (In Persian).


  • Jincy Rose, M. A., and Chithra, N. R. 2022. Establishing a statistical relation between meteorological and hydrological drought indices. Water Supply22(4), PP.4262-4277. Doi: 10.2166/ws.2022.048.


  • Karimirad, I., Ebrahimi, K., and Araghnejad, S. 2019. Assessing the Impact of Land-use Changes on Recharging of a Multilayer Aquifer. Jornal of Watershed Management Science&Engineering, 12(43), PP. 50-60. Dor: 20.1001.1.20089554.1397. (In Persian).


  • Katipo─člu, O. M., Acar, R., and ┼×enocak, S. 2021. Spatio-temporal analysis of meteorological and hydrological droughts in the Euphrates Basin, Turkey. Water Supply21(4), PP. 1657-1673. Doi: 10.2166/ws.2021.019.


  • Lei, C., Wagner, P. D., and Fohrer, N. (2021). Effects of land cover, topography, and soil on stream water quality at multiple spatial and seasonal scales in a German lowland catchment. Ecological Indicators, 120, 106940. Doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106940.


  • Lotfirad, M., Esmaeili-Gisavandani, H., and Adib, A. 2022. Drought monitoring and prediction using SPI, SPEI, and random forest model in various climates of Iran. Journal of Water and Climate Change, 13(2),383-406. Doi: 10.2166/wcc.2021.287.


  • Malekpurlarki, S., Khorsandi Kouhanstani, Z., and Faraji, M. 2020. Evaluation of impacts of land use change on Shavoor River water quality. Watershed Engineering and Management, 12(2), PP.580-592. Doi: 22092/ijwmse.2018.109145.1265. (In Persian).


  • Malik, A., Kumar, A., Salih, S.Q. and Yaseen, Z.M., 2021. Hydrological drought investigation using streamflow drought index. intelligent data analytics for decision-support systems in Hazard mitigation: theory and practice of hazard mitigation, pp.63-88. Doi: 10.1007/s11269-012-0026-0.


  • McKee, T.B., Doesken, N. J., and Kleist, J., 1995. Drought monitoring with multiple time scales. In Proceedings of the 9th Conference on Applied Climatology, pp. 233-236.


  • MesbahZadeh, T., and SoleimaniSardoo, F. 2018. Temporal trend study of hydrological and meteorological drought in Karkheh watershed. Iranian Journal of Watershed Management Science and Engineering, 12(40), PP.105-114. Dor: 20.1001.1.20089554.1397. (In Persian).


  • Mishra, B. K., Regmi, R. K., Masago, Y., Fukushi, K., Kumar, P., Saraswat, C. 2017. Assessment of Bagmati river pollution in Kathmandu Valley: Scenario-based modeling and analysis for sustainable urban development. Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology, 9, PP. 67-77. Doi: 10.1016/j.swaqe.2017.06.001


  • Moradi, H., Taghavi, N., and Bahramifar, N. 2012. Effect of Different Land Use On Surface Water Quality Case Study: Siahrood Ghaemshahr Watershed. Environmental Erosion Researches, 1(4), 23-32. (In Persian).


  • NafiShehab, Z., Jamil, N. R., Aris, A. Z., and Shafie, N. S. 2021. Spatial variation impact of landscape patterns and land use on water quality across an urbanized watershed in Bentong, Malaysia. Ecological Indicators, 122, PP.107254. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.107254.


  • Nalbantis, G., and Tsakiri, S. 2008. Assessment of Hydrological Drought Revisited. Water Resources Management, 23(5), pp. 881-891.


  • Nazarnezhad, H., Irani, T., and Miryaghobzadeh, M. 2019. Investigation of land use change effects on water quality of Zarrinehroud Basin (West Azarbaijan). Watershed Engineering and Management, 11(1),76-87. (In Persian).


  • Nikbakht, J., and Moradi, O. 2019. Effect of Drought on Hashtgerd Plain Groundwater Quantity and Quality Considering Irrigation Use. Iran-Water Resources Research, 14(4), 120-131.


  • Organization of Agriculture Jahad Isfahan, 2011. (In Persian).


  • Rahdari, V., Safianian, A.R. Pourmanafi, S. Qayumi Mohammadi, H., Maleki, S. and Pormardan, V. 2019. Multi-criteria assessment of land capability for rainfed farming (case study: Plasjan watershed sub-basin). Journal of Soil and Water Sciences, 23(4), 297-285. (In Persian).


  • Rajabzadeh, S., Masaedi. A., and Qabaei Souq, M. 2019. Investigation of Temporal Variatiom and Relationship between Meteorological and Hydrological Droughts of Kashmar and Bardaskan Plain. 8th National conference on Rainwater Catchment systems, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian).


  • Salimi, H., Asadi, E. and Darbandi, S., 2021. Meteorological and hydrological drought monitoring using several drought indices. Applied Water Science11, pp.1-10.


  • Šebenik, U., Brilly, M. and Šraj, M., 2017. Drought analysis using the standardized precipitation index (SPI). Acta geographica Slovenica57(1), pp.31-49.


  • Shahrokhi, Z., Zare, M., Maybodi, A. M., and Aliabad, F. A. 2019. The effect of drought on surface water quality of the Halil-Rood basin, Kerman. Journal of Water and Soil Science, 23(3), 367-379. (In Persian).


  • Shalaby, A., and Tateishi, R. 2007. Remote sensing and GIS for mapping and monitoring land cover and land-use changes in the Northwestern coastal zone of Egypt. Applied geography, 27(1), PP. 28-41. Doi: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2006.09.004.


  • Soltani-Gerdefaramarzi, S. Gheisouri, M., Saberi, A. and Yarami, N. 2021. The effect of land use change on surface water quality under the wet and dry years in a semi-arid catchment (case study: Godarkhosh catchment). Environment, Development and Sustainability, 23(4), PP. 5371-5385.


  • Sonmez, F.K., Komuscu, A.U., Erkan, A., and Turgu, E., 2005. An analysis of spatial and temporal dimension of drought vulnerability in Turkey using the standardized precipitation index. Natural Hazards, 35, 243–264.


  • Tahiru, A. A., Doke, D. A., and Baatuuwie, B. N. 2020. Effect of land use and land cover changes on water quality in the Nawuni Catchment of the White Volta Basin, Northern Region, Ghana. Applied Water Science, 10(8), PP. 1-14.


  • 2012. Standardized Precipitation Index User Guide. No. 1990. Geneva 2, Switzerland. 16 P.
Volume 46, Issue 3
December 2023
Pages 103-120
  • Receive Date: 06 June 2022
  • Revise Date: 01 January 2023
  • Accept Date: 04 January 2023
  • Publish Date: 22 November 2023