Evaluate the Performance of Sugarcane Bagasse as a Carbonic Source Required in the Design of Denitrification Substrates

Document Type : Research Paper



     Nitaret is one of the stable components of nitrogen in the nature. Nitrate compounds are highly soluble and can easily imported to the surface and groundwaters and finally lead to be polluted of them. Denitrification is one of permanent removal methods of nitrate from terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In this study, denitrification process and nitrate removal rate changes with time in a column experimental study was evaluated on two types of denitrification beds, first type was a mixture of bagasse and soil (30 % of the volume of bagasse and 70 % of the volume of soil) and second type was only soil without bagasse. All experiments were performed under saturation conditions (anaerobic conditions). The influent nitrate concentraion to the all beds was considered an average of 45 mg/l. With sampling of inflow and outflow of the columns, nitrate removal changes were assessed over a period of three months. The maximum percentage of nitrate removal in columns with mixture of soil and bagasse were occurred in the end of the experiment (94%) and in columns without the bagasse were ocured in the first of the experiment (89%).The results showed that sugar cane bagasse as a carbonic source can be very useful in the design of carbonic filters and denitrification walls for nitrate favorable removal of inlet concentrated solutions. Overall, the results confirm that the denitrification process is one of the main mechanisms of biological nitrate removal from anaerobic enviroments.


1-  هاشمی، س. ا.، حیدر پور، م. و ب. مصطفی زاده فرد. 1390. بررسی میزان حذف نیترات در دو حالت قرار گیری فیلترهای زیستی در سیستم های زهکشی زیرزمینی. علوم و مهندسی آبیاری، 34(2): 81-71.
2- واحدی، ع. ا.، متاجی،  ا. و س. م. حجتی. 1393. مدل سازی مخزن کربن آلی خاک در رابطه با ویژگی­های فیزیکو-شیمیایی خاک در جنگل گلندرود در شمال ایران. مجله پژوهش­های خاک (علوم خاک و آب)، 28 (1): 61-53.
3-    Barkle, G.F. Schipper, L.A., Burgess, C.P. and B.D.M. Painter. 2007. In situ mixing of organic matter decreases hydraulic conductivity of denitrification walls in sand aquifers. Grounwater Monitoring and Remediation, 28: 57-64.
4-    Brady, N.C. and R.R. Weil. 2002. The Nature and properties of soils, 13ed. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
5-    Calderera, M., Martí, V., Pablo, J.D., Guivernau, M., Prenafeta-Boldú, F.X. and M. Viñas. 2014. Effects of enhanced denitrification on hydrodynamics and microbial community structure in a soil column system. Chemosphere, 111: 112-119.
6-    Camargo, J.A. and A. Alonso. 2006. Ecological and toxicological effects of inorganic nitrogen pollution in aquatic ecosystems: A Global Assessment Environment International, 32: 831-849.
7-    Cameron, S.C. and L.A. Schipper. 2010. Nitrate removal and hydraulic performance of carbon substrates for potential use in denitrification beds. Ecological Engineering, 31: 1588-1595.
8-    Cameron, S.G. and L.A. Schipper. 2012. Hydraulic properties, hydraulic efficiency and nitrate removal of organic carbon media for use in denitrification beds. Ecological Engineering, 41: 1-7.
9-    Chen, Y., Li, B., Ye, L. and Y. Peng. 2015. The combined effects of COD/N ratio and nitrate recycling ratio on nitrogen and phosphorus removal in anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic (Al2O)-biological aerated filter (BAF) systems. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 93: 235-242.
10- Franzmeier, D.P. 1991. Estimation of hydraulic conductivity from effective porosity data for some Indiana soils. Soil Science Society of American Journal, 55: 1803 – 1891.
11- Galloway, J.N., Aber, J.D., Erisman, J.W., Seitzinger, S.P., Howarth, R.W., Cowling, E.B. and B.J. Cosby. 2003. The nitrogen Cascade. Bioscience, 53(4): 341-356. 
12- Ghane, E., Fausey, N.R. and L.C. Brown. 2015. Modeling nitrate removal in a denitrification bed. Water Research, 71: 294-305.
13- Gilliam, W. 1994. Riparian wetland and water quality. Journal of Environmental Qulity, 23: 896–900.
14- Hashemi Garmdareh, S.E., Heidarpour, M. and B. Mostafazadeh-Fard. 2011. Nitrate removal using different carbon substrates in a laboratory model. Water Science and Technology, 63(11): 2700-2706.
15-  Healya, M.G., Ibrahim, T.G., Lanigan, G.J., Serrenho, A.J. and O. Fenton. 2012. Nitrate removal rate, efficiency and pollution swapping potential of different organic carbon media in laboratory denitrification bioreactors. Ecological Engineering, 40: 198-209.
16- Hill, A., 1996. Nitrate removal in stream riparian zones. Journal of Environmental Qulity, 25: 743–755.
17- Hill, A.R. and M. Cardaci. 2004. Denitrification and organic carbon availability in riparian wetland soils and subsurface sediments. Soil Science Society of American Journal, 68: 320–325.
18- Hiscock, K.M. Lloyd, J.W. and L.N. Lerner. 1991. Review of natural artificial denitrification of groundwater. Water Research, 25(9): 1099-1111.
19- Jaynes, D.B., Kasper, T.C., Moorman, T.B. and T.B. Parkin. 2008. In situ bioreactors and deep drain-pipe installation to reduce nitrate losses in artificially drained fields. Journal of Environmental Quality, 37: 429-436.
20- Kadlec, R.H., and S.D. Wallace. 2009. Treatment wetlands. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.
21- Knowles, R. 1982. Denitrification. Microbiological Reviews, 46(1): 43-70.
22- Lee, K. and B.E. Rittmann. 2003. Effect of pH and precipitation on autohydrogenotrophic denitrification using the hollow-fiber membranebiofilm reactor. Water Resource, 37: 1551-1556.
23- Lin, Y.F., Jing, S.R., Lee, D.Y., Chang, Y.F. and K.C. Shih. 2008. Nitrate removal from groundwater using constructed wetlands under various hydraulic loading rates. Bioresource Technology, 99: 7504-7513. 
24- Long, L.M. 2011. Long term nitrate remoal in a denitrification wall. A Thesis Submitted In Fulfilment of Reguirements for The Degree of Master of Philosophy In Earth and Ocean Sciences, The University of Waikato.
25- Obaja, D., Macé, S. and J. Mata-Alvarez. 2005. Biological nutrient removal by a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using an internal organic carbon source in digested piggery wastewater. Bioresource Technology, 96: 7-14.
26- Reddy, K.R. and R.D. DeLaune. 2008. Biogeochemistry of wetlands: Science and applications. CRC Press, Boca Global Population and the Nitrogen Cycle. Nature Scientific America, 277: 76-81.
27- Rivett, M.O., Smith, J.W.N., Buss, S.R. and P. Morgan. 2007. Nitrate occurrence and attenuation in the major aquifers of England and wales. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 40(4): 335–352.
28- Robertson, W.D. 2010. Rates of nitrate removal in woodchip media of varying age. Ecological Engineering, 36: 1581-1587.
29- Rupert, M.G. 2008. Decadal-scale changes of nitrate in ground water of the United States, 1988-2004. Journal of Environmental Quality, 37: 240- 248.
30- Rust, C.M., Aelion, C.M. and J.R.V. Flora. 2000. Control of pH during denitrification in sub-surface sediment microcosms using encapsulated phosphate buffer. Water Resource, 34(5): 1447–1454.
31- Saliling, W.J.B., Westerman, P.W. and T.M. Losordo. 2007. Wood chips and wheat straw as alternative biofilter media for denitrification reactors treating aquaculture and other wastewaters with high nitrate concentrations. Aquacultural Engineering. 37: 222-233.
32- Schipper, L.A., Barkle, G.F., Hadfield, J.C., Vojvodic-Vukovic, M. and C.P. Burgess. 2004. Hydraulic constraints on the performance of a groundwater denitrification wall for nitrate removal from shallow groundwater. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 69: 263-279.
33- Schipper, L.A., Robertson, W.D., Gold, A.J., Jaynes, D.B. and S.C. Cameron. 2010. Review: Denitrifying bioreactors—an approach for reducing nitrate loads to receiving waters. Ecological Engineering, 36(11): 1532-1543.
34- Seitzinger, S.P. 1988. Denitrification in freshwater and coastal marine ecosystems ecological and geochemical significance. Limnology and Oceanography, 33(4, part 2): 702-724.
35- Shao, L., Xu, Z.X., Jin, W. and H.L. Yin. 2009. Rice husk as carbon source and bilofilm carrier for water denitrification. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 18(4): 693–699.
36- Smil, V. 1997. Global population and the nitrogen cycle. Nature Scientific America, 277: 76-81.
37- Spalding, R.F. and M.E. Exner. 1993. Occurrence of nitrate in groundwater-A review. Journal of Environmental Quality, 22(3): 392-402.
38- Stanford, G., Dzienia, S. and R.A. Vanderpol. 1975. Effect of temperature on denitrification rate in soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 39(5): 867-870.
39- Ueda, T., Shinogi, Y. and M. Yamaoka. 2006. Biological nitrate removal using sugar-industry wastes. Paddy Water Environment, 4: 139–144.
40- USEPA, 2006. Edition of the Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisories. Report 822-R-06-013, Office of Water U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, USEPA, Washington, DC.
41- Vitousek, P.M., Aber, J.D., Howarth, R.W., Likens, G.E., Matson, P.A., Schindler, D.W., Schlesinger, W.H. and D.G. Tilman. 1996. Human Alteration of the Global Nitrogen Cycle: Sources and Consequences. Ecological Applications, 7(3): 737-750.  
42- Volokita, M., Abeliovich, A. and M.I.M. Soares. 1996a. Denitrification of groundwater using cotton as energy source. Water Science and Technology, 34: 379-385.
43- Volokita, M., Belkin, S., Abeliovich, A. and M.I.M. Soares. 1996b. Biological denitrification of drinking water using newspaper, Water Reseurce, 30: 965-971.
44- Wang, D.Q., Chen, Z.L., Xu, S.Y., Da, L.J., Bi, C.J. and J. Wang. 2007. Denitrification in tidal flat sediment, Yangtze Estuary. Science in China Series B-Chemistry, 50(6): 812-820.
45- Xu, Z. Shao, L., Yin, H., Chu, H. and Y. Yao. 2009. Biological denitrification using corncobs as a carbon source and biofilm carrier. Water Environment Research, 81: 242-247.
46- Yang, X., Wang, S. and L. Zhou. 2012. Effect of carbon source, C: N ratio, nitrate and dissolved oxygen concentration on nitrite and ammonium production from denitrification process by Pseudomona stutzeri D6. Bioresource Technology, 104: 65-72.
47- Zhu, S., Zheng, M., Li, C., Gui, M., Chen, Q. and J. Ni. 2015a. Special role of corn flour as an ideal carbon source for aerobic denitrification with minimized nitrous oxide emission. Bioresource Technology, 186: 44-51.
48- Zhu, S.M., Deng, Y.L., Ruan, Y.J., Guo, X.S., Shi, M.M. and J.Z. Shen. 2015b. Biological denitrification using poly (butylene succinate) as carbon source and biofilm carrier for recirculating aquaculture system effluent treatment. Bioresource Technology, 192: 603-610.
Volume 40, Issue 2
September 2017
Pages 39-57
  • Receive Date: 16 September 2015
  • Revise Date: 23 September 2017
  • Accept Date: 05 December 2015
  • Publish Date: 23 August 2017