Laboratory and Numerical Study of Dynamics Salty Density Current in The Reservoirs

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Water resource expert Khuzestan Water and Power Authority

2 shahid chamran univercity of ahwaz


     Since the characteristics of density current is affected by different parameters, the effect of discharge rate changes, gradient and the concentration of density current on speed of the forehead  and also the speed distribution in density current’s body have been investigated by physical and three-dimensional mathematical model (Flow-3d) in this research. For these purposes, different tests in the form of salty density current were done with three inflow discharge rates (0.7, 1 and 1.3 liters per second) and three different slopes (0, 1 and 2.2 percent). As well as to evaluate the effect of density changes on the flow characteristics, the concentration of 10, 15 and 20 grams per liter were used. In order to measure the speed of the forehead, velocity distribution in the body and its changes with flow, density and different slopes, video camera and ultrasound profiler speedometer were used in this study. Then, forehead speed and velocity distribution in the current’s body were achieved using six different turbulence models which are available on the software of “Flow-3D”. Comparing the results of physical and mathematical model showed that Eddy turbulence model and laminar flow mode have better accuracy in relation to other turbulent models. It should be noted that Reynolds number on experiments are at the range of  2000-4000.


1-    حقی آبی، ا. 1383. بررسی اثر شیب کف بر پروفیل سرعت جریان غلیظ رساله دکتری رشته سازه های آبی ، دانشکده مهندسی علوم آب، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز.
2-    کاهه، م. قمشی، م. و س، ح، موسوی جهرمی، 1391. بررسی آزمایشگاهی سرعت پیشروی جریان غلیظ بر روی سطوح زبر. علوم و مهندسی آبیاری، 35(1): 101-110.
3-    کشتکار، ش. ایوب زاده، س ع. و ب، فیروزآبادی، 1389 . بررسی پروفیل سرعت و غلظت جریان گل آلود با استفاده از مدل فیزیکی. پژوهش‌های آبخیزداری،87(2): 43-36.
4-    کوتی، ف. کاشفی پور، س، م. و م  قمشی، 1391. تجزیه و تحلیل پروفیل های سرعت در جریان غلیظ. مجله ی علوم و فنون کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، علوم آب و خاک، 59: 29-15.
5-    Altinakar, M.S., Graf, W.H. and , E.J, Hopfinger. 1990. Weakly depositing turbidity current on a small slope. Journal of Hydraulic Research. 28(1): 55-80.
6-    Baas, J.H. McCaffrey, W.D. Haughton P.D.W. and C, Choux. 2005. Coupling between suspended sediment distribution and turbulence structure in a laboratory turbidity current. Journal of Geophysics Research, 110: 20-32.
7-    Barahmand, N. and A, Shamsai. 2010. Experimental and theoretical study of density jumps on smooth and rough beds”. Lakes and Reservoirs: Research and Management, 15(4): 285-307.
8-    Britter, R.E. and P, Linden. 1980.The motion of the front of a gravity current traveling down an incline. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 99(3): 531- 543.
9-    Buckee, C. Kneller, B. and J, Peakall. 2001. Turbulence structure in steady solute-driven gravity currents Blackwell Oxford pp, 173-188.
10- Choux, C.M.A. Baas, J.H. McCaffrey, W.D. and P.D.W, Haughton. 2005. Comparison of spatio–temporal evolution of experimental particulate gravity flows at two different initial concentrations based on velocity grain size and density data. Sedimentary Geology, 179: 49-69.
11- FathiMoghadam, M. TorabiPoudeh, H. Ghomshi, M. and M, Shafaei. 2008. The density current head velocity in expansion reaches. Lakes & Reservoirs: Research & Management, 13(1): 63-68.
12- Ghomeshi, M. 1995. Reservoir sedimentationmodeling. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Wollongong. Australia.
13. Graf, W.H. and M, S, Altinakar. 1998. Fluvial Hydraulics, Flow and Transport Processes in Channels of Simple Geometry. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, England.
14- Ieong, K, K. Mok, K,M. and H, Yeh. 2006. Fluctuation of the front propagation speed of developed gravity current. Journal of Hydrodynamics, 18(3): 351-355.
15- LaRocca, M. Adduce, C. Sciortino, G. And A, B, Pinzon. 2008. Experimental and numerical simulation of three-dimensional gravity currents on smooth and rough bottom. Physics of Fluids, 20, 106603.
16- McCaffrey, W, D. Choux, C, M. Baas, J, H. And P, D, W, Haughton. 2003. Spatio-temporal evolution of velocity structure concentration and grainsize stratification within experimental particulate gravity currents. Marine and Petroleum Geology. 20: 851-860.
17- Sequeiros, O, E. Spinewine, B. Beaubouef,  R, T. Sun, T. Garcia, H. M., and G, Parker. 2010. Characteristics of Velocity and Excess Density Profiles of Saline Underflows and Turbidity Currents Flowing over a Mobile Bed”. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 136(7): 167-180.
18- Turner, J, S. 1973. Buoyancy Effects in Fluids. Cambridge University Press London, U.K, pp. 178-181.
19- Yu, W, S. Lee, H, Y. And M, S, Hsu. 2000. Experiments on deposition behavior of fine in a reservoir. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 126(12): 912-920.
Volume 40, Issue 2
September 2017
Pages 173-182
  • Receive Date: 28 November 2015
  • Revise Date: 25 September 2017
  • Accept Date: 30 April 2016
  • First Publish Date: 23 August 2017