بررسی کاربرد پلیمر سوپرجاذب بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و کارایی مصرف آب کاهو

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد آبیاری و زهکشی، دانشکده مهندسی علوم آب، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز.

2 دانشیار گروه آبیاری و زهکشی، دانشکده مهندسی علوم آب، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

3 دانشیار گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز.

چکیده

با توجه به محدودیت منابع آب، استفاده بهینه از آب ضروری است. با کاربرد برخی مواد نظیر پلیمرهای سوپرجاذب، می­توان از بارندگی­های مقطعی و سایر منابع محدود آب در امر حفظ و ذخیره آب در خاک استفاده نمود. پلیمرهای سوپرجاذب با جذب آب و تا حدودی، املاح کودی و انقباض و انبساط متناوب باعث بهبود خـصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک می­شوند. به منظور ارزیابی تأثیر پلیمر سوپرجاذب بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و کارایی مصرف آب کاهو، پژوهشی در قالب یک طرح کاملاً تصادفی فاکتوریل با دو تیمار رژیم آبیاری( در سه سطح 60، 80 و 100 درصد تأمین نیاز گیاه) و غلظت سوپرجاذب (در چهار سطح صفر، 4 ،6 و 8 گرم در هر کیلوگرم خاک گلدان) در خاک لومی در سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده مهندسی علوم آب دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که کاربرد سوپرجاذب و کم آبیاری در سطح یک درصد بر میزان عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد تأثیر معنی­دار دارد و بیشترین عملکرد (وزن تر سر کاهو، 3/572 گرم)، ارتفاع از سطح خاک (5/25 سانتی­متر) در شرایط بدون تنش (100 درصد تأمین نیاز گیاه) و در حضور شش گرم سوپرجاذب در هر کیلوگرم خاک، بیشترین قطر (37 سانتی­متر) در شرایط 100 درصد تأمین نیاز گیاه و هشت گرم پلیمر و بیشترین کارایی مصرف آب (02/49 کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب) در شرایط 60 درصد تأمین نیاز گیاه و هشت گرم پلیمر به دست آمد. استفاده از شش گرم پلیمر و آبیاری کامل به منظور تولید حداکثر محصول توصیه می­گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Superabsorbent Polymer on Yield, Yield components and Water Use Efficiency of Lettuce

نویسندگان [English]

  • Haniyeh Taheri 1
  • Amir Soltani Mohammadi 2
  • Naser Alamzade Ansari 3
1 1- M. Sc. Student of Irrigation and Drainage, Faculty of Water Sciences Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.
2 Associate professor of Irrigation and Drainage, Faculty of Water Sciences Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran,
3 Associate Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Water deficiency or drought is among the most important factors in reducing crop production (Heidari, et al., 2013). Water deficiency or water stress occurs when transpiration is more than water absorption (Alizadeh, 2008). One of the methods that researchers have been studying to increase water use efficiency and performance over the last decade is the use of superabsorbent polymers and deficit irrigation (Khyrabadi, et al., 2014). The superabsorbent polymer is a kind of hydrocarbon, which absorbs water several times as much as its own weight. Due to the drying of the root environment, the water inside these polymers is gradually evacuated and placed at the disposal of the plan, thus the soil will remain moist for a long time without the need for re-irrigation (Abedi Kupai, And Sohrsb, 2005). Considering that the most important advantage of superabsorbent application is reducing the effect of drought stress, this study investigated the effect of deficit irrigation and different levels of superabsorbent on yield, yield components and water use efficiency of lettuce.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Superabsorbent
  • Deficit İrrigation
  • Yield
  • Water use efficiency
  • Lettuce
1-       Abedi Koupai J. and Asadkazemi J., 2006. Effects of  hydrophilic polymer on the field performance of an ornamental plant (Cupressus arizonica) under reduced irrigation regimes. Iranian Polymer Journal, 15(9), PP. 715-725.
 
2-       Abedi Kupai J. and Mesforoosh M., 2009. Evaluation of application of super absorbent polymer on performance, water use efficiency and storage of nutrients in greenhouse cucumbers. Irrigation and Drainage Journal of Iran, 2(3), PP. 100-111. (In Persian).
 
3-       Abedi Kupai J. and Sohrab F., 2005. Estimation of hydraulic properties of different soils by the addition of synthetic superabsorbent by using the RETC model. In 3th training and Professional Seminar on the Agricultural Application of Superabsorbent Hydrogels, PP. 2-17. (In Persian).
 
4-       Alizadeh A., 2008. Water, soil and plant relationship. Imam Reza University Publishing. (In Persian).
 
5-       Dashte Bozorg, A., Sayyad Gh.A. and Kazeminejad A., 2012. Investigating the effect of water absorper type on water holding capacity of soil. Journal of Irrigation Sciences and Engineering,  35(4), PP. 33-38. (In Persian).
 
6-       Elahe Dadi A. and Moazen Ghamsari B., 2005. Investigating the effect of different amounts of superabsorbent - A200 and different levels of irrigation on growth and yield of forage corn (Zea may). Proceedings of the Third Period of Professional-Educational of Agricultural and Industrial Application of Superabsorbent Hydrogels, Tehran, Iran. (In Persian).
 
7-       Elahe Dadi A., Moazen Ghamsari B. and Akbari Gh.A., 2006. Investigation on the use of superabsorbent polymers as an important strategy in reducing the effects of drought stress in crops. In 9th Congress of Agriculture and Plant Rectification, Karaj, Seed and Sapling Prepared Research Institute. (In Persian).
 
8-       Gholami M., 2008. Super absorbents are a way to expand green space and cope with water scarcity. Green architecture Journal, 101, Rah Shahr International Group. (In Persian).
 
9-       Hasanvandi M. S., Aynehband, A., Rafiee, M., Mojadam, M. and Rasekh, A., 2014. Effects of supplemental irrigation and superabsorbent polymer on yield and seed quality of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) under Dry-farming conditions. Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences, 3(12), PP. 174-185.
 
10-   Heidari, F., Zare Abyaneh, H. and Heidari, Gh.R., 2013. Effect of water stress and different levels of superabsorbent polymer on flowering and yeild of bell pepper. National Conference on Change of Climate and Engineering Sustainable Development of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Tehran, toloo Farzin Science and Technology Company. (In Persian).
11-   Hessam M. and Kalouei M., 2013. Maintenance of soil moisture by superabsorbent and its effect on yield and Water use efficiency of tomato. Journal of Soil and Water Protection Research, 21(2), PP. 245-259. (In Persian).
 
12-   Islam R.M., Hu,Y., Mao S., Jia P.,  Eneji A.E. and  Xuzhang X. 2011. Effects of water-saving superabsorbent polymer on antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in corn (Zea mays L.) under drought stress. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 91, PP. 813-819.
 
13-    Kafi M., Borzooei A., Salehi M., Kamandi A., Masoumi A. and Nabati J., 2009. Physiology of environmental stresses in plants. University Jahad Publishing of Mashhad, First Printing. (In Persian).
 
14-   Kassim F.S., El-Koly M.F. and Hosny S.S., 2017. Evaluation of super absorbent polymer application on yield, and water use efficiency of grand nain banana plant. Middle East Journal of Agriculture Research, 6, PP. 188-198.
 
15-   Khyrabadi H.A., Mirzai A.kh. And Yousefi Fard Y., 2014. Effect of superabsorbent on yield and yield components of maize 640 in khorramabad city. In 2th Congress of Agriculture and Sustainable Natural Resources, Tehran, the Higher Education Institute of Mehr Arvand, the Promotion Group of Environmental Lovers and the Association for the Protection of Nature Iran. (In Persian).
 
16-   Kohestani Sh., Askari N. And Maghsoudi K., 2009. investigation Effect of superabsorbent hydrogels on corn yield under drought stress conditions. Journal of Iranian Water Research, 3(5). PP. 71-78. (In Persian).
 
17-   Najafi Alishah F., Golchin A. and Mohebi M., 2012. Effect of acosurb super absorption polymer and irrigation round on yield, water use efficiency and greenhouse cucumber indices. Journal of  Sciences and Techniques Agricultural, 4(15), PP. 1-14. (In Persian).
 
18-   Nazarli H. and Zardashti M.R., 2010. The effect of drought stress and super absorbent polymer (A200) on agronomical traits of sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.) under field condition. Cercetari Agronomice in Moldova, 43(3), PP. 5-14.
 
19-   Nikoorazm KH., Lotfi M. and Hematyan dehkordi M., 2009. Investigating the application of superabsorbent polymer in the irrigation round and the application of polymer on lettuce growth (Lactuca sativa L.). In 6th Congress of Horticulture. (In Persian).
 
20-   Sayyari M. and Ghanbari F., 2012. Effects of super absorbent polymer A200 on the growth, yield and some physiological responses in sweet pepper (Capsicum Annuum L.) under various irrigation regimes. International Journal of Agricultural and Food Research, 1(1), PP. 1-11.
 
21-   Shekari F., Javanmard A. and Abbasi A., 2015. Effects of Superabsorbent Polymer Application on Yield and Yield Components of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Notulae Sicentia Biologicae, 7(3), pp. 631-366.