Suitable Regions for Rain-Fed Tree Culture in Central Zagros (Chaharmahal-Bakhtiari Province of Iran)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 M.Sc. Graduate Student of Watershed Management, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Ardakan University

2 Assitant professor of Water Science and Engineering, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Ardakan University, Ardakan, Iran.

چکیده

There are many slopping lands in Chaharmahl-Bakhtiari Province of Iran, located in the central Zagros, which have suitable conditions for production of rain-fed horticultural products. This study was an attempt to determine the appropriate regions for almond and vine rain-fed cultivation in this province. Water requirement (ET) of the trees was calculated by local information of weather and plants. Annual precipitation (P) and ET were probabilistically analyzed. Required area for micro-catchment (Ac) and suitable regions for rain-fed gardening were then determined at different probability levels (p ) or return periods (T). Finally, average expected yields of almond and grape was estimated. Mapping the gardening-suitable area showed that inappropriate regions for rain-fed almond and vine culture are concentrated in the eastern part of the province due to less P and higher ET. Moreover, almond generally needed larger Ac than vine (about 43%) due to higher ET. Results also showed that increasing runoff coefficient (C) was more effective than enhancing water storage efficiency (E) in reducing required Ac, therefore, increasing 10% and 20% of C and E lead to 48% and 28% smaller Ac, respectively. Average required Ac for almond was calculated as 17.4 m2 which resulted in production of 549.0 kg/ha with p =50% (T=2). The corresponding values for the grape were 9.5 m2 and 2,128.8 kg/ha. Overall, the western areas in the province were more appropriate for rain-fed almond culture, whereas rain-fed vineyard gardens are preferred to be constructed in the eastern parts of the province.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Suitable Regions for Rain-Fed Tree Culture in Central Zagros (Chaharmahal-Bakhtiari Province of Iran)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nasimeh Khalili Samani 1
  • Abolfazl Azizian 2
  • Najmeh Yarami 2
  • Somayeh Soltani-Gerdefaramarzi 2
1 M.Sc. Graduate Student of Watershed Management, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Ardakan University
2 Assitant professor of Water Science and Engineering, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Ardakan University, Ardakan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

There are many slopping lands in Chaharmahl-Bakhtiari Province of Iran, located in the central Zagros, which have suitable conditions for production of rain-fed horticultural products. This study was an attempt to determine the appropriate regions for almond and vine rain-fed cultivation in this province. Water requirement (ET) of the trees was calculated by local information of weather and plants. Annual precipitation (P) and ET were probabilistically analyzed. Required area for micro-catchment (Ac) and suitable regions for rain-fed gardening were then determined at different probability levels (p < /em>) or return periods (T). Finally, average expected yields of almond and grape was estimated. Mapping the gardening-suitable area showed that inappropriate regions for rain-fed almond and vine culture are concentrated in the eastern part of the province due to less P and higher ET. Moreover, almond generally needed larger Ac than vine (about 43%) due to higher ET. Results also showed that increasing runoff coefficient (C) was more effective than enhancing water storage efficiency (E) in reducing required Ac, therefore, increasing 10% and 20% of C and E lead to 48% and 28% smaller Ac, respectively. Average required Ac for almond was calculated as 17.4 m2 which resulted in production of 549.0 kg/ha with p < /em>=50% (T=2). The corresponding values for the grape were 9.5 m2 and 2,128.8 kg/ha. Overall, the western areas in the province were more appropriate for rain-fed almond culture, whereas rain-fed vineyard gardens are preferred to be constructed in the eastern parts of the province.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chaharmahl-Bakhtiari Province
  • Micro-catchment
  • Water harvesting
  • Rain-fed gardening
  • Zagros Mountains
  • Almond
  • Grape
1-    Abdelkadir, A. and Schultz, R.C. 2005. Water harvesting in a runoff catchment agroforestry system in the dry lands of Ethiopia. Agroforestry Forum, 63, pp. 291-298.
 
2-    Arar, A., 1994. Optimization of water use in arid areas. Water Reports (FAO).
 
3-    Allen, R.G., Pereira, L.S., Raes, D. and Smith, M., 1998. Crop evapotranspiration-Guidelines for computing crop water requirements-FAO Irrigation and drainage paper 56. Fao, Rome300(9), p.D05109.
 
4-    Bayen, P., Lykke, A.M. and Thiombiano, A., 2016. Success of three soil restoration techniques on seedling survival and growth of three plant species in the Sahel of Burkina Faso (West Africa). Journal of forestry research27(2), pp.313-320.
 
5-    Birru, O., Quraishi, S. and Bedadi, B., 2012. Effects of straw mulch and farmyard manure on runoff, erosion, in-situ water conservation, and yield and yield components of wheat at the highlands of Bale, south eastern Ethiopia. African Journal of Agricultural Research7(44), pp.5879-5886.
 
6-    Chow, V.T., Maidment, D.R. and Mays, L.W. 1988. Handbook of Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, New York.
 
7-    Fooladmand, H.R. and Sepaskhah, A.R. 2006. Probabilistic determination of micro-catchment area for rain-fed tree cultures. Iranian journal of Science and Technology, Transaction B, engineering, 30(B4), pp. 517-526.
 
8-    Jahad-Keshvarzi Organization, Chaharmahal-Bakhtiari Province. 2019. Agriculture statistical yearbook (personal communication).
 
9-    Mahmoodi, N. 2012. Locating the suitable regions for storing rainwater (case study: Derakht Senjed Watershed). In Proceeding of 1th national conference on rainwater catchment systems, Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian)
 
10- Meteorological Organization of Chaharmahal-Bakhtiari Province. 2014. Meteorological Report of Chaharmahal-Bakhtiari Synoptic Weather Stations. [2018-01-17].  http://www.chaharmahalmet.ir. (In Persian)
 
11- Plan and Budget Organization. 2009. Instruction for garden construction in sloping area. Publication No. 510. (In Persian).
 
12- Rahemi, A. and Yadollahi A. 2006. Rainfed almond orchards in Iran, ancient and new methods and the value of water harvesting techniques. Acta Horticulture, 726, pp. 449-453.
 
13- Rahman, A., Hajani, E., & Eslamian, S. 2017. Rainwater harvesting in arid regions of Australia. In: Eslamian, S. & Eslamian, F. (Eds.), Handbook of Drought and Water Scarcity: Environmental Impacts and Analysis of Drought and Water Scarcity (pp. 489-500).
 
14- Sadeghzadeh Reihan, M.A, Zare Haghghi, D. and Neyshabouri, M.R. 2013. Evaluation of Rainwater harvesting Methds in Increasing Soil Moisture and Pistachio Seedling Growth. Water and Soil Science, 23(4), pp. 203-214. (In Persian).
 
15- Sepaskhah, A.R. 2014. Micro-catchment water harvesting for optimum use in agriculture. Shiraz University Press. (In Persian).
 
16- Sepaskhah, A.R. and Foolandmand, H.R. 2004. A computer model for design of micro-catchment water harvesting systems for rain-fed vineyard. Agricultural Water Management, 64(3), pp. 213-232.
 
17- Tabatabei Yazdi, J., Davari, K. and Raouf, Y. 2007. Economic analysis of water harvesting techniques for agricultural use (case study: natural resources research station of north Khorasan). In proceeding of 6th conference of Iranian Agricultural Economics, Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian).
 
18- Tamaddun, K., Kalra, A. and Ahmad, S. 2018. Potential of rooftop rainwater harvesting to meet outdoor water demand in arid regions. Journal of Arid Land, 10(1), pp. 68-83.
 
19- Tavakoli, A.R. 2013. Determination of technical Characters of micro-catchments water harvesting systems for rainfed almond trees. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 14(2), pp.1-16. (In Persian).
 
20- Yin, M., Li, Y., Xu, Y. and Zhou, Ch. 2018. Effects of mulches on water use in a winter wheat/summer maize rotation system in Loess Plateau, China. Journal of Arid Land, 10, pp. 227-291.
 
21- Vohland, K. and Barry, B. 2009. A review of in situ rainwater harvesting (RWH) practices modifying landscape functions in African drylands. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 131(3-4), pp. 119-127.
 
22- Yadollahi, A., Teymouri, N., Abdousi, V., Sarikhani, S. (2012). 'Application of Superabsorbent in Microcatchments for Establishing Almond Orchards under Rainfed Condition', Journal of Water Research in Agriculture, 26.1(1), pp. 93-104. (In Persian).