عنوان مقاله [English]
Seepage reduction in earth canals is a practical way for maintaining available water resources. The use of proper and inexpensive materials is a practical way for decreasing seepage losses in canals. Experiments showed that seepage in small channels and field canals is usually more than conveyance canals. One of the most important factors for determining seepage rate is permeability of constituent materials of bed and sidewall of canal, which depends on porosity size. Smaller porosity size results in less permeability, which is proportion to squared diameter of the porosity USBR (1963).
Garg and Chawla (1970) showed the seepage rate is high in unlined canals.
Aylward and Newton (2006) determined water losses rate to be 25% in an earth canal with 82 km length and found water losses volume to be 11.9 million cubic meter along a period of 210 days of irrigation season. The results showed that water losses decreased by 30% through 45% by controlling seepage and also water losses in the canal are directly proportional to permeability.
The purpose of this research is to introduce an economic lining in order to reduce seepage losses of four-degree irrigation canals and increase their water conveyance efficiency. Hence, it is recommended to use sodium carbonate and sugarcane and sugar beet factory waste instead of use of heavy machinery for compacting of soil.