عنوان مقاله [English]
Desalination plants dispose with the wastewater feed via channels and pipelines. The behavior of dense flows discharged into receiving water body is very important, thus prompting researchers to conducted numerous studies on the behavior of flows from surface and submerged dischargers. Among the scholars focusing on submerged dischargers, Zeitoun et al. (1972), Cipollina et al. (2005), and Bleninger and Jirka (2008) investigated submerged negatively buoyant jets in horizontal, vertical, and oblique discharge conditions and obtained results on flow trajectory and dilution rate. Furthermore, Researchers have also delved into surface dischargers. Using numerical modeling, Kassem et al. (2003) inquired into the effects of different parameters of an outflow, a bed, and receiving ambient water on the properties of dense flows discharged through inclined and divergent channels. Kotsovinos (2000), Papakonstantis and Christodoulou (2010), Kaye and Hunt (2004) experimentally examined the spreading of dense flows caused by the impingement of submerged jets on a horizontal plane. Papakonstantis and Christodoulou (2010) concentrated on negatively buoyant circular jets and vertical and horizontal positively buoyant jets, reporting that the dense flow in negatively buoyant jets and vertical positively buoyant jets has a circular outer boundary. The authors also observed that radial distance from the impingement point to the outer boundary of flow is related to time by a power of 0.5.
As previously stated, understanding the behavior of dense flows discharged into receiving ambient water is highly important. Correspondingly, this study explored the spreading of dense horizontal flow over the bed of deep and stagnant ambient water.