تعیین شاخص‌های تنش خشکی دو رقم کنجد محلی بهبهان و دشتستان2

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اهواز

2 مربی پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اهواز، ایران.

3 محقق صنایع غذایی، بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی ، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اهواز، ایران.

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی شاخص­های تنش­خشکی در روش آبیاری قطره­ای نواری بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد دانه، عملکرد روغن، درصد روغن دانه و کارایی مصرف آب، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 98-1397 در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی بهبهان اجرا گردید. آزمایش به صورت کرت‌های یک‌بار خرد شده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. فاکتور اصلی شامل مقدار آب در آبیاری قطره­ای نواری در پنج سطح شامل چهار سطح 40، 60، 80 و 100 درصد نیازآبی از شروع مرحله گلدهی در آبیاری قطره­ای و یک سطح آبیاری سطحی (جویچه­ای) به­عنوان تیمار شاهد و فاکتور فرعی شامل رقم در دو سطح شامل ارقام محلی بهبهان و دشتستان2 بود. مقایسه میانگین اثرات متقابل آبیاری و رقم نشان داد که بالاترین کارایی مصرف آب مربوط به رقم محلی بهبهان در تیمار 100 درصد نیاز آّبـی  با مقادیر معادل  222/0 کیلوگرم دانه کنجد بر مترمکعب آب  بود. به­دلیل بیش­تر بودن مقادیر شاخص­های SSI و TOL در رقم محلی بهبهان نسبت به رقم دشتستان2 می­توان رقم محلی بهبهان را از نظر تنش­خشکی به عنوان تیمار برتر معرفی نمود. نتایج ضریب همبستگی پیرسون نشان داد وجود همبستگی مثبت و معنی­دار تعداد دانه در کپسول، کپسول در بوته و وزن هزاردانه به­عنوان اجزای عملکرد با عملکرد نشان داد که با افزایش اجزای عملکرد  در نهایت عملکرد دانه افزایش یافت. میزان شاخص­های SSI و TOL با افزایش سطح تنش­خشکی (از 100 درصد به 40 درصد نیاز آبی) افزایش پیدا کرد در حالی­که مقادیر شاخص­های STI، MP، GMP، HM، YI و YSI با افزایش سطح تنش کاهش یافتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determination of Drought Stress Indices of Two Varieties Sesame Local of Behbahan and Dashtestan2

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nader Salamati 1
  • Amirkhosro Danaie 2
  • Leila Behbahani 3
1 Research Assistant Professor of Agricultural Engineering Research Department, Khuzestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Ahvaz, Iran..
2 Member of Scientific Board, Seed and Plant lmprovement Department, Khuzestan. Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Ahvaz, Iran.
3 Researcher of food industry, Agricultural Engineering Research Department, Khuzestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Ahvaz, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Water stress is currently considered the most important and common cause of reduced yield in arid and semi-arid regions. Still, this tension may even occur in areas with high rainfall. Due to its resistance to drought and heat, Sesame is of great importance in developing agriculture in arid and semi-arid regions during summer planting. Sesame, with the scientific name Sesamum indicum L. is crucial in developing agriculture in arid and semi-arid regions during summer planting (Aien, 2013) due to its tolerance to drought stress and heat. According to the results of this study, the KC50662 and Oltan sesame varieties in terms of yield and yield components in normal conditions and stress were in the superior group. The two cultivars with higher stress tolerance index (STI) had higher performance in both conditions. Regression results for the STI index indicated that cultivars with higher STI had more seed weight per capsule and more capsules per plant (Abbasali et al., 2017). The results of one research showed that Olt cultivar with the highest levels of STI and the lowest SSI and TOL as tolerant cultivars were identified in normal condition and moisture stress conditions. The researchers also identified the Sesame Oltan variety as having the highest amount of STI and the least amount of SSI and TOL indices as a drought-tolerant (Molaei et al., 2012). In one study, Darab 14 sesame variety was superior in the normal conditions and moisture stress in terms of tolerance and sensitivity and was introduced as an outstanding cultivar in evaluating MP, TOL, SSI, HARM, and STI indices (Amani et al. 2012). Considering the importance of Sesame as one of the leading products of feed oil supply in Iran, the implementation of low irrigation can be adapted to the occurrence of droughts with water shortages. This study aimed to investigate the effect of drought stress on different levels of drip irrigation and the identification of superior cultivars based on drought stress indices.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • 1000-grain weight
  • Water use efficiency
  • Variety
  • Evapotranspiration
1-Abbasali, M., Gholipouri, A., Tobeh, A., Khoshkholgh Sima, N. A. and  Ghalebi, S.,  2017. Identification of drought tolerant genotypes in the sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) collection of National plant gene bank of Iran. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science, 48 (1), pp. 275-289. (In Persian)
 
2-Acosta-Gallegos J. A. and Adams, M. W., 1991. Plant traits and yield stability of dry bean cultivars under drought stress. Journal of Agricultural Science, 117, pp.213-219
 
3-Afshari, F., P. Golkar, and Mohammadinejad, Gh., 2014. Evaluation of drought tolerance in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) genotype at different growth stages. Arid Biom Scientific and Research Journal. 4(2), pp. 90-94.
 
4-Aien, A., 2013. Effect of  eliminating of irrigation at different growth stages on seed yield and some agronomic traits of  two sesame genotypes. Journal of Planting and Seed. 29 (1). pp. 67-79 (In Persian)
 
5-Allen, R.G., Pereira, L.S., Raes, D. and Smith, M., 1998. Crop evapotranspiration: Guidelines for computing crop water requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 56, Rome, Italy.
 
6-Amani, M., Golkar,  P. and Mohammadi-Nejad, G., 2012. Evaluation of drought tolerance in different  genotypes of sesame (Sesame indicum L.). International Journal of Recent Scientific Research, 3(4) pp. 226-230.
 
7-Askari, A., Zabet M, Ghaderi, M GH., amadzadeh, A.R.  and  Shorvazdi, S., 2016. Choose the most important traits affecting on yield of  some sesame genotypes (Sesamum indicum L.) in normal and stress conditions. Journal of Crop Breeding, 8(18), pp. 78-87. (In Persian)
 
8-Bot, A.J., Nachtergaele, F.O. and Young, A., 2000. Land resource potential and constraints at regional and country levels. World Soil Resources Reports 90. Land and Water Development Division, Food, Agric. Organ, Rome
 
9-Boureima, S., Diouf, M., Amoukou, A.I. and Van Damme, P., 2012. Screening for ources of tolerance  to drought in sesame induced mutants: Assessment of indirect selection criteria for seed yield. International Journal of Pure and Applied Biosience, 43 (1). pp. 39-49.
 
10-Daneshian, J. and Jonoubi, P., 2008. Evaluation of sunflower new hybrids tolerance to water deficit stress. Proceedings of the 5th International Crop Science Congress. Jejo, Korea. Page 189.
 
11- Dargahi, Y., Asghari, A., Shokrpour, M., Rasulzadeh, A.,  Garib Eshgi, A. and Shiri, M.R. 2011 Evaluation of Water stress Tolerance in Sesame Varieties Based on Tolerance Indices. Journal of Agricultural Science and Sustainable production, 21 (3): 119-133. (In Persian)
 
12-Dilip, K., Ajumdar, M. and Roy, S., 1991. Response of summer sesame (Sesamum indicum) to irrigation, row spacing and plant population. Journal Indian Agronomy, 37, pp. 758-762.
 
13-Eskandari, H., ZehtabSalmasi, S. and Ghasemi-Golozani, K., 2010. Evaluation of water use efficiency and grain yield of sesame cultivars as a second crop under different irrigation regimes. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture Science, 2(20), pp. 39-51 (In Persian).
 
14-Fernandez, G. C. J., 1992. effective selection criteria for assessing plant stress tolerance. Proceeding of the international symposium on adaptation of vegetables and other food crops in temperature and water stress..Taipe.Taiwan.
 
15-Fischer, R. A. and Maurer, R., 1978. Drought resistance in spring wheat and grain yield responses. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research . 29. Pp. 892-912.
 
16-Golestani, M. and Pakniyat, H., 2007. Evaluation of drought tolerance indices in sesame lines. JWSS Isfahan University of Technology, 11(41). pp. 141-150. (in Persian)
 
17-Hassanzadeh, M., Ebadi, M., Panahyan-e-eKivi, SH., Jamaati-e-Somarin, Saeidi, M. and Gholipouri, A., 2009. Investigation of water stress on yield and yield components of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Research Journal of Environmental Science. 3(2). pp. 239-244.
 
18-Khani, M.R., Heidari Sharifabad, H., Madani, H., Noor Mohamadi, G.H. and Darvish, F., 2007. Selection for tolerance to drought in sesame genotype. The New Findings Agriculture, Technical Rep (In Persian)
 
19-Lotfi, P., Mohammadi-Nejad, Gh. and Golkar, P,. 2012. Evaluation of drought tolerance in different genotypes of the safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Journal of Crop Science5 (7). pp. 1-14 (In Persian)
 
20-Molaei, P., Ebadi, A., Namvar, A. and Bejandi, T.K., 2012. Water relation, solute accumulation and cell membrane injury in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) cultivars subjected to water stress. Annals of Biological Research, 3(4), pp. 1833-1838.
 
21-Monajem, S., Mohammadi, V. and Ahmadi, A., 2011. Evaluation of drought tolerance in some rapeseed Cultivars based on stress evaluation indices, Electronic Journal of Crop Production. 4 (1), pp. 151-169 (In Persian)
 
22-Poor-Esmaeil, H. A., Fanaei, H. and Saberi, M.H., 2014. Evaluation of drought tolerant cultivars and lines of sesame using stress tolerance indices. Scientific Journal of Crop Science, 3(6), pp.  66-70.
 
23-Sakila, M.S., Ibrahim, M., Kalamani, A. and Backiyarani, M., 2000. Correlation studies in sesame (sesamum indicum L.). Sesame and Sofflower Newsletter, 15. pp. 26-28.
 
24-Shabani, Z Nurizadan, H. R., Jamali, F. and Bayat, F., 2015. Evaluation of the relationship between morphological traits and yield in different sesame cultivars. Second International Conference on Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment and Medicinal Plants. 29 February 2015. Iranian Agricultural and Natural Resources Engineering Association in association with the Third Millennium Institute. Tehran, Iran (In Persian).
 
25-Shahrabi, B. Farahmandfar, E., Hassanlo, T., Shirani Rad, A.H. and Tabatabaee S.A., 2013. Evaluation of drought tolerance in rapeseed varieties based on physiological and agronomical characteristics at Yazd region. Journal of Crop production. 6 (4). pp. 97-77. (In Persian)
 
26-Shiranirad, A.H. and Abbasian, A., 2015. Evaluation of drought tolerance in rapeseed genotypes under non Stress and drought stress conditions. Notulae Botanici Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 39. pp.164-171.
 
27-Sephevand, M., 2009. Comparison of water requirement, water productivity and its economic productivity in wheat and canola in the west of Iran during rainy years. Iranian Journal of Water Research 3(4). Pp. 63-68. (In Persian)
 
28-Sio-Semardeh, A., Ahmadi, A., Poostini, K. and Mohammadi, V., 2006. Evaluation of drought resistance indices under various environmental conditions. Field Crops Research., 98. pp. 222-229.
 
29- Vamerali, T., Saccomani, M., Bons, S., Mosca, G., Guarise, M. and Ganis, M., 2003. A  comparison of root. characteristics in relation to nutrient and water stress in two maize hybrids. Plant Soil. 255. pp. 157-167.
 
30-Yari, M. and Saidi, Q. 2016. Agronomic Evaluation of Some Sesame Genotypes under Two Irrigation Regimes Master's Thesis.  Isfahan University of Technology – pp 112. (In Persian).
 
31-Zaferaniyeh, M., 2015. Evaluation of tolerance indices and drought stress susceptibility in canola cultivars. In International Conference on Applied Research in Agriculture. University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran. (In Persian)